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nil ,,,,, 3,07 

3 1822 01137 31U/ 





presented to the 


Mr. William W. Johnson 





Some Notes on 

Books and Printing 


PRINTING : A Praftical Treatise on the Art of 
Typography as applied more particularly to the Printing of 
Books. Largely illustrated. Post 8vo, $s. 


Hints and Suggestions relating to Letterpress and Lithographic 
Printing, Bookbinding, Stationery, Engraving, etc. Crown 
8vo, 5J. [^Second Edition. 


Terms and Phrases, Abbreviations, and other Expressions 
mostly relating to Letterpress Printing. Crown 8vo, jj. 6d. 


Limited Edition, Fcap. 8vo, Zs. 6d. [Out of print. 

Some Notes on 

Books and Printing 

A Guide for Authors 
and Others 





jS^^j^^h /^^^a^^^^S^^^fim 



^^^ f .Mj^s^ 






HE present volume is pradically a 
revised reprint of my little book 
" On the Making and Issuing of 
Books," w^hich Mr. Elkin Mathew^s 
published for me in the spring of last year. 
The appreciation with which that volume met, 
and the inquiries I have had for it since the 
limited edition was exhausted, have encouraged 
me to re-issue it in a different form, with the 
addition of many typographical specimens, and 
a few samples of really good papers suitable for 
printing purposes. 

All the types shown here are in use at the 
Chiswick Press, but founts that are peculiar to 
that office have not been included, in order that 
the utility of the book for general reference 
may not be in any way limited. 

C. T. Jacobi. 

OSlober^ 1892. 


The Preparation of MS. for the 



Making an Index ....... 


Corredtion of Proofs ..... 


The Character of Types ..... 


The Sizes and Names of Types 


The Leading of Type ..... 


The Chara£ler and Varieties of Papers 


Of the Margins of Books ..... 


The Sizes of Books determined 


Some Methods of Illustrating Books . 


The Binding of Books ..... 


The Issue of Books by Publication and by Subscription 


Copyright . 




Review Copies , 


Demands of Public Libraries 

• 31 



Casting off Copy 


Extras .... 


Casting off Printed Matter 

• 34 


• 34 



Eledlrotyping . 


Hints on Drawing for Process Blocks 

• 36 


• 36 


Cost of Paper . 
Reams of Paper 



Specimens of Types 

Samples of Papers 




at end 





HE first and most important The prepa 

step in the produd:ion of a 
Book is the proper preparation 
of the manuscript. A tidily 
and carefully written MS., es- 
pecially if the work of an un- 
known author, will often carry weight with it 
when placed before the publisher for his con- 
sideration. A badly written MS. sometimes 
does not receive that amount of attention which 
its literary merit would otherwise command. 

In writing use either quarto or folio paper, 
ruled or plain, and write on one side only, with, 
say, an inch margin on the left-hand edge. 
This allows room for any desirable subsequent 
alteration, or for remarks and instructions for 
the printer. Let each sheet be distind:ly paged 
throughout, and avoid, as far as possible, inter- 
lineations in the MS. 

ration of 
MS. for the 


Paires should not be confused with leaves — 


for in printing, two pages are equal to one 
leaf, being printed on both sides. 

Bad copy is a bane to the printer, and much 
trouble and annoyance is obviated if good MS. 
is supplied at the outset. To write clearly 
entails but little extra labour, the habit once 
acquired becoming second nature. 

Every printing establishment of any note has 
its methods and customs as regards orthography, 
the use of capital letters, and of puncftuation. 
As a rule, it is best to leave these details to the 
printer ; any little deviation desired may be 
easily remedied in the proofs with which the 
author is supplied. At any rate, it is best that 
the capitals be kept down as much as possible, 
spelling only proper names and titles with a 
capital letter. 

It is perhaps as well to say here that there 
are certain methods of indicating in MS. where 
italic, small capitals, and capitals, should be 
used. These are simply : 

Italic ' 

SMALL CAPITALS =r^=— -——=-=: 


These underlinings, if borne in mind, will save 
much trouble. 

Paragraphs should be boldly indicated by 
setting the line well back in the " copy," as the 
MS. is technically called, but if by chance, 
when the copy has been written, a fresh line 
is required where it has already been run on 


in the same line, a paragraph may be expressed 
by making a bracket mark, thus [ 

Footnotes should each have a corresponding 
reference, and where possible should be written 
at the bottom of the page to which they refer. 
Either letters, ^ b c d^ qj. figures, ^ ^ ^ *, may be 
used for the purpose. 

Extradl matter included in the text should 
be clearly shown, either by marking it down 
the side with a vertical line (in coloured ink or 
pencil is the best plan), from beginning to end, 
or by setting the whole well back within the 
compass of the text. 

Titles of works or newspapers are under- 
lined or placed within inverted commas in 
order to make them distindt, the printer using 
his discretion as to which style he will adopt, 
except in the case of special instrud:ions from 
the author. 

If a work is to be divided into chapters, 
a table of contents should be placed in front ; 
if illustrated to any extent, a list of illustrations 
should be added as well. The correal order for 
preliminary matter, where all these details are 
necessary, is : half-title, title, dedication, preface, 
contents, and list of illustrations ; the certificate 
of a limited edition should face either the half- 
title or the full title. Nearly all works of any 
value are the better for an index, and the absence 
of one is sometimes a serious defed:. It of 
course depends on the nature of the work to 
what extent it shall be indexed. 

Volumes issued with a due regard to these 


details are undoubtedly the better for them. If 
the volume is an important one, and a good 
index is required, the author or editor is the best 
person to provide it ; failing either, the printer's 
reader who has had charge of the volume may 
be intrusted with the task. Some firms are 
willing to undertake this portion of the work. 
The index should not be completed till the 
work has been finally corredled and passed for 
the press, or errors may creep in which will 
destroy its reliability and value. 

Making an The best and quickest way to make an index 
Index. jg |.Q ^i-ife each item on a separate slip of paper. 
Each slip should contain the head to be in- 
dexed, with the page reference attached to it. 
Assuming you have chosen what subjed:s to 
index, for instance, say, all names of persons 
and places, let every one of these be written 
out as often as they occur in the text, com- 
mencing with the first page and taking the 
whole in sequence. As they are written, throw 
them into a box or basket, and, when finished, 
gather them together and place all in alpha- 
betical order. The next step is to eliminate 
all duplicate headings, but before doing this 
the page reference of the one thrown out must 
be transferred to the slip retained, and in its 
numerical order. This considerably reduces 
the bulk of the index. 

This plan is the only royal road to making a 
corred index, without the chance of duplication 
or omission. Care must be taken a second time 


In checking the stridlly alphabetical arrangement 
of the slips. When you have assured yourself 
of this, they may be pasted up in sheet form ; 
this reduces the risk of losing any of the slips, 
and is a more convenient form for handling. 

With regard to, the corre(5lions in the proofs Correftion 
it must be remembered that the more care- of proofs. 
fully a book is written, the less expense will 
be incurred for " author's corrections." This 
charge is often a great source of contention 
between the author, publisher, and printer, and 
altogether is an unsatisfactory item. A printer 
is bound, with certain reservations, to follow 
the copy supplied, and if he does that, and the 
author does not make any alterations, there is 
no charge, and nothing to wrangle about. But 
should there be many emendations in the proof, 
they may prove disastrous as regards trouble 
and expense. 

A page of type may contain two or three 
thousand letters, every word being built up 
letter by letter, and line by line till the page 
is complete. A small corred:ion, trivial as it 
may seem to the inexperienced, will possibly 
involve much trouble to the printer, and the 
labour expended on it is not apparent and is 
only appreciated by a practical man. 

A word inserted or deleted may cause a page 
to be altered throughout line by line, and a 
few words may possibly affe(ft several pages. 
The charges made for corrections are based 
on the time consumed in making the altera- 


tions or corredlions, and are very difficult to 
check, even by an expert. 

If it is actually a necessity that a work must 
be correcfled when in type, and the amount of 
these alterations is likely to upset the arrange- 
ment of the lines and pages, it is best to ask 
for proofs in " galley " or slip form. This 
means a little more trouble to the printer, but 
to the author or publisher it will probably cause 
less expense in the long run. 

In marking corred:ions for the printer certain 
signs and symbols are used which express more 
concisely the meaning than could be indicated 
by a more ordinary method of marking the 
alterations. We give on the opposite page the 
principal characters used : that page showing 
the corre(5tions as they would be marked by a 
skilled person ; this, the facing page, the type 
corredted according to these directions ; and 
on the page overleaf the corrections explained 
in detail. 

In making a correction in a proof always 
mark the wrong letter or word through, and 
insert the alteration in the margin, not in the 
middle of the printed matter, because it is apt 
to be overlooked if there is no marginal reference 
to the correction. To keep the different cor- 
rections distinct, finish each one oif with a stroke, 
thus / and to make the alterations more clear, 
if the corrections are heavy, mark those relating 
to the left-hand portion of the page in the 
left margin, and those to the right on the right- 
hand margin. 



tions or c^rre^ftioos and are very difficult to 

check, even by an expert. [If it is actually a ne- n-^'hoA,. 

cessity that a work must be carre(5ted when in 

y type J and the amount of these alterations is likely 
to upset the arrangement of the lines and pages, 

^ Y ^^ ^s best to^ ask for proofs in / galley " or Slip <^. 

' ' form.-> 

This means a little more trouble to the printer, 
but to the author or publisher it will^probably ^ 
cause less expense in the long run. ** 

7 ^In marking corred:ions for the printer certain 

signs and symbols are used which express more (3^ 
concisely the meaning than could be indicated 
by a more ordinary method of -tka* marking the c^ 

alterationy We give on the opposite page the 
principal characters used/ that page showing Q 
the corr£(5cions as they would be marked by a 
skilled person ; this, the facing page, the /jype ^— 
corred:ea according to these dired:ions ; and 
on the page overleaf the correlations explained an 

In making a correction in a proof alwiays 
mark the wrong letter or word through, and t^m, 
insert the alteration in the margin, not in the 
mi|?dle of the printed matter, because vis/1\apt fe» 
to De"9?^rlooked if there is no marginal reference 

Ko>W ^° tKe^orreCtion. io keep the different cor- 7/ 

redlSns^istind, finish each one off with a stroke, 

thus / and to make the alterations more clear, 

^ if the coQeCtlons are heavy, mark thosej-elating -v 

to the left-hand portion of the page in the 
to/ left margin, and those^the 4cfron the right- 'if^ 
/ hand margin. 



Synopsis of some of the P r oof -Reader s Marks used 
on the foregoing page. 

New par. or n. p. or [ Commence a fresh line 
or paragraph. 

X A bad or battered letter. 

^ Delete or expunge. 

/. c. A capital or small capital to be changed to 
a lower-case letter. 

Run on. Sentence not to commence a new line, 
but to follow on previous matter. 

I A space or quadrat standing high to be 

pushed down. 
□ This indicates that the line has to be in- 
dented one em of its own body. 

Cl A turned letter. 

© A full-stop or full-point has to be inserted. 

L^ Space to be reduced. 

Rom. Change italic into roman. 

Trs. A transposition of a word or words. 

J The matter has something foreign between 

the lines, or a wrong-fount space in the line, 

causing the types to get crooked. 
Cap. Alter a lower-case letter into a capital, 

expressed also by three lines under, ^. 

3 The words or letters over which this is 

marked to be joined. 
S A space has to be inserted. 

yxA caret mark, indicating something to be 


When the corrections have been duly made 
and approved by the author or editor, it is 
customary to write the w^ord " press " on the 
top of the first page of the sheet ; all inter- 
mediate proofs should be marked " revise." 
The final, or ** press proof," is always retained 
by the printer in case of any challenge or dis- 
pute. It is his voucher, and he retains it for 
future reference. 

Printer's readers, styled " corrediors of the 
press," are, as a rule, a very careful and pains- 
taking body of men. Generally with a pradlical 
experience, and sometimes a classical knowledge, 
they virtually subedit the MS. Their queries 
on proofs should be seriously considered, for 
they frequently find an author nodding, and 
due attention to their valuable queries will well 
repay the trouble. 

The beauty of a volume is dependent on the Thecharac- 
seleftion of a suitable characfler of type. These ^^^ ^^ types. 
** founts " of type may be broadly classified into 
three divisions, namely : 

(/s:) the old faced, 

{b) the revived old style, 

(c) the modern faced. 

The first series {a) is occasionally used for 
bookwork, as is the case in this volume ; the 
old-fashioned long f being sometimes used in 
conjunction with the ligature letters, fi flfTftfh 
111 fil fk fb dt, and so on. 


The second series (b) is more generally used 
for bookwork ; a glance at the general run of 
books nowadays will corroborate this statement. 
The third series {c) is perhaps more in demand 
for newspapers, magazines, school-books, scien- 
tific works, pamphlets, and such like. 

As mentioned before, the text of this book is 
printed in the old-faced type designed and cut 
by William Caslon, who flourished in the early 
part of the eighteenth century, but without the 
long f for the sake of greater clearness. 

For specimens of the various sizes of types in 
the different faces suitable for bookwork see the 
end of this work. 

The sizes Each series of type is made in many sizes ; 
and names fQj. purposes of identification they are here 
^^^^" named, commencing with the smallest : 

1. Diamond. 8. Long Primer. 

2. Pearl. 9. Small Pica. 

3. Ruby. 10. Pica. 

4. Nonpareil. 11. English. 

5. Minion. 12. Great Primer. 

6. Brevier. 13. Paragon. 

7. Bourgeois. 14. Double Pica. 

The size of type used for this book is 
English. There are other larger sizes than 
those here enumerated, and smaller ones too, 
but they hardly come within the scope of the 
present essay. 

Most of these founts of type have some re- 
lative proportion to each other in depth, and a 


knowledge of these equivalents is sometimes 
useful in matters of calculation. 

Diamond is equal to /ja/f of Bourgeois. 
Pearl ,, ,, Long Primer. 

Ruby ,, 

Nonpareil ,, 
Minion „ 

Bourgeois ,, 
Long Primer,, 
Small Pica 

Small Pica. 

Great Primer. 
Double Pica. 

The width of pages is measured by the use 
of " ems." Technically an em is the exad: 
depth of the body of any fount of type, but 
Pica size is that adopted for governing the 
measure of the line. By ** body " we mean 
the square of metal on which the face of the 
letter is cast. Pica type without leading runs 
six lines to an inch ; and twenty-one Pica ems 

wide, as in this work, will be found to measure 
three and a half inches if a rule be placed across 
the print. 

Type is sometimes bulked out by the inser- The lead- 
tion of thin strips of lead, this being called mg of type. 
** leading." Where no leads are employed, it is 
obviously " solid." The type in which this text 
is composed is set solid. A " thick " lead is 
equal to two " thin " leads — four thick leads are 
equivalent to a pica, or twenty-four to an inch. 
A book may even be double or treble thick 


By this means a volume may be spun out to 
almost any length. As there is sometimes a 
difference of opinion with regard to the appear- 
ance of leaded or non-leaded matter, we venture 
to express our views. Undoubtedly a page of 
type set quite close looks pretty as a whole, but, 
unless it may happen to be a fairly large type, 
it is not so comfortable in reading as a page 
which is slightly leaded out. Pages of great 
width especially demand spacing out, as the eye 
is apt to lose the continuity in turning from the 
end of one line to the commencement of the 

There are many other varieties of type in 
existence than those mentioned, but mostly of 
a fanciful character, and not in good taste or 
in keeping with bookwork. However, the oc- 
casional use of black letter, italic, and a bolder 
face of type is permissible in order to give em- 
phasis to certain passages. This fatter face of 
type is sometimes called " clarendon," and 
occasionally " Egyptian." 

We do not rejed: fancy types altogether by 
any means. These characfters are sometimes 
good, but more often bad, and their employ- 
ment can only be tolerated in advertisements 
and works of a miscellaneous or commercial 

The types on the following page represent in 
the " old face " character many of the different 
sizes in general use. A practised eye can readily 
discriminate between the various sizes of the 
different classes of type bodies. 


Nonpareil is the name and size of the type shown here in this specimen page of old face types. 
Brevier is the name and size of the type shown here in this specimen page of old 
Bourgeois is the name and size of the type shown here in this specimen 
Long Primer is the name and size of the type shown here in this 
Small Pica is the name and size of the type shown here in 
Pica is the name and size of the type shown here in 
English is the name and size of the type shown 

Great Primer is the name and size of 

Paragon is the name and size of the 

Double Pica is the name and 

Two-line Pica is the name 


Thecharac Next to the selection of a good type is the 
ter and va- choice of paper to be used, the nature of the 
rieties o ^q^]^ ^q some extent ffovernin^ this choice, 
papers. i i r i i • 

To put an old-faced type on machine paper 

or a modern-faced on one made by hand is 
hardly logical, though there are exceptions to 
this rule. To be consistent, it is best to print 
old-faced type on handmade paper, or at least 
on that of an antique charad:er ; and most cer- 
tainly modern-faced type on machine paper. 
The intermediate series of type faces, the revived 
old style, may, however, without offence to the 
most critical, be employed on either kind of 

Papers may be at once divided into two classes 
— handmade and that made by machine. Each 
kind, again, has two varieties ; these are distin- 
guished as *' laid " and ** wove " respediively. 

Laid papers are identified by the wire marks 
or water-lines, which are rendered more visible 
when a sheet is held up to the light. Wove 
papers have none of these lines or marks, and 
their absence at once fixes the class. 

Further, handmade papers in the full size of 
sheet have a raw or ragged edge all round the 
four sides, which is called the " deckle." Those 
manufadlured by the machine have cut or even 
edges : except in the case of imitation or antique 
papers, which are now made with a sham raw 
edge on one, or even two, sides of the paper. 

Another mark of distind:ion between papers 
made by hand or machine is that the former is 
darker on the right side and the latter darker on 


the wrong side, the two sides being obvious by 

Machine papers are subjecfb to a very great 
number of varieties, not only in shade of colour, 
but in style and quality ; this quality is improved 
by a larger proportion of rag being used. If 
durability and quality are sought for in a fine 
book, handmade paper is desirable, its texture 
being stronger and of more lasting properties. 

The principal sizes of printing papers measure 
in inches : 

Foolscap 17 ^ i3i 

Crown 20 X 15 

Post 20 X 16 

Demy 22^ >< iji 

Medium 24 x 19 

Royal 25 X 20 

Double Pott . . . . 25 X i5i 

Double Foolscap . . 27 x 17 

Super Royal .... 27^ x 2o|^ 

Double Crown . . . 30 x 20 

Imperial 30 x 22 

Double Post . . . . 32 X 20 

Columbia 34^ x 23^ 

Atlas 36 X 26 

[Handmade printing papers may vary slightly.) 

Very smooth or highly calendered paper is 
only recommended for a book which absolutely 
requires it for the sake of its illustrations, hand- 
made or rough papers not being adapted for the 
suitable printing of pidlorial subjects unless they 
are of a purely outline charad:er. 


Vellum is occasionally used for very special 
copies of a choice work, but its first cost and 
the subsequent trouble and expense in printing 
render it truly an edition de luxe. It is somewhat 
difficult to obtain nowadays any great unifor- 
mity in vellums. Formerly they were thinner 
and softer. 

A substitute for vellum which has crept in 
during the past few years, is the Japanese hand- 
made vellum paper. It is almost untearable, and 
its beautifully even and smooth surface is capable 
of receiving the finest impression. So much so, 
that it is largely used for printing engravings 
and etchings. Its cost as compared with real 
vellum is small, and not very much more than 
the best English handmade rag paper. 

Of the mar- We now approach what is another important 
gins of feature in the appearance of a well-printed book, 
books. Margin is a matter to be studied. To place 

the print in the centre of the paper is wrong in 
principle, and to be deprecated. If we look at 
a book printed in this fashion, it is apparent to 
the book-lover that something is amiss ; for by 
an optical illusion its. pages have the appearance, 
even if placed in the centre of the paper, of 
having more margin on the inner than on the 
outer edge of the book, the same deception 
applying to the top and tail margin. 

To remedy this, it is therefore necessary to 
have more margin on the outer than the inner 
side of a page, called respectively the *' back " 
and " fore-edge ; " and the same rule applies to 


the top and bottom, less at the " head " than at 
the " tail." 

Apart from this, the larger amount of paper 
on the fore-edge and tail serves a double pur- 
pose. It allows of subsequent rebinding and 
cutting, as it is just these edges which usually 
suffer most. It also allows room for annotation, 
and this margin was much used in olden times 
for this very purpose, as a reference to some of 
the best printed books of the past will show. 
Another suggestion that has been advanced is 
that there is more wear and tear on these por- 
tions of a book. 

As regards proportion of margin, the size of 
the book must be taken into consideration : a 
gradual increase of margin from a sextodecimo 
to a folio. For the sake of symmetry the head 
and back margin should be about the same, and 
likewise the fore-edge and tail about equal to 
each other : if there is any difference, it should 
be in favour of a slightly greater margin on tail 
and head than on back and fore-edge respec- 

If an issue of a work has an edition de luxe, 
it is well not to make the difference in size too 
extravagant. It is often the custom to make an 
od:avo an octavo still in the large paper, though 
no definite rules in this matter can be laid 

Supposing a book is printed in the revived 
old style type on a machine paper, it is quite 
permissible to print the large paper copies on a 
handmade paper. 



These sizes are suggested for the difference 
between small and large paper editions : 

Foolscap 8vo in large paper may be Crown 8vo 
Crown 8vo „ „ Demy 8vo 

Post 8vo „ „ Medium 8vo 

Demy 8vo „ „ Royal 8vo 

Medium 8vo „ „ Super Royal 8vo 

Royal 8vo „ „ Imperial 8vo 

The same scale may be applied to quartos ; 
for instance, a foolscap 4to may be made a 
crown 4to in large paper, and so on. 

The sizes of It is a difficult matter sometimes, even for the 
books deter- bibliophile, to discriminate between the various 
"^'^^ ■ sizes of Books, but the rules here laid down 
will be found useful and corred: in the main. 

Books are defined respectively as folio, quarto, 
(4to), odlavo (8vo), duodecimo (i2mo), sexto- 
decimo (i6mo), od:odecimo (i8mo), vigesimo- 
quarto (24mo), trigesimo-secundo (32mo), etc. 
These definitions are arrived at by the number 
of times a sheet is folded ; for instance, a folio 
would be two leaves to the sheet, a quarto four 
leaves, and so on. Sometimes it is difficult to 
distinguish, say, an o6tavo from a quarto ; but if 
it is printed on a handmade laid paper, the 
water-lines that run at intervals through the 
sheet (not to be confused with the smaller and 
closer wire marks of the sheet) will determine 
this. The water-lines on a folio, od:avo, and 
od:odecimo would be perpendicular; on a quarto, 
duodecimo, and sextodecimo, horizontal. The 



signatures or letters placed at the foot of the 
first, and sometimes the third page, also serve 
as a guide to identification. 

Books with uncut or merely trimmed edges 
should measure in inches : 

Pott . . . 
Foolscap . 
Post . . . 


6ix 4 

6f X 4i 

• 7i X 5 
8 X 5 


7f X 6i 
Six 6f 
10 X 7i 

Demy . 
Medium . 

H X 5i 
9i X 6 

nix 8f 
12 X 9i 

Royal . . . . 
Super Royal . 
Imperial . 

10 X 61 

loi X 6f 

. II X 7i 

12^ X 10 

13! X loi 

15 XII 

Other sizes are a matter of further subdivision. 

These dimensions are not for books with cut 
edges, but it is safe to allow a quarter of an 
inch less in height, and not quite so much in 
width, if the edges have been cut down, always 
assuming these edges have not been cut more 
than once ; otherwise, if the book has been re- 
bound more than on one occasion, no reliance 
can be placed on this rule. 

There is not always a clear understanding as 
to the terms used in connection with the treat- 
ment of edges. " Uncut " does not necessarily 
mean that the edges have not been opened with 
a knife, but simply that the book has not been 
cut down by machine, a method which some- 
times sadly mars the appearance of a book. 
The expression "unopened" is perhaps astridler 
term to be applied when absolutely untouched. 


" Trimmed edges " means that the heads have 
been left untouched, and the fore-edge and tail 
merely trimmed sufficiently to make them tidy. 
** Cut edges " means that a portion has been cut 
from the three sides of the book, and made 
quite smooth. 

The principal objedt in the use of signatures 
at the foot of the first page of a sheet is to serve 
as a guide to the binder in folding; they are 
further useful to the printer in discriminating 
between the different sheets of a v^ork, and in 
giving him the sequence of a volume without 
the trouble of referring to the pagination. 

Sometimes figures are used as signatures, but 
more often the letters of the alphabet, omitting 
J, V, w, and reserving a for the preliminary 
matter. If this preliminary matter is somewhat 
extensive and exceeds a sheet, the signatures are 
continued with the small letters b, c, d, e, and 
so on, technically called " lower case " letters, 
as distind; from capitals or small capitals. Sup- 
posing the text of a volume exhausts the alpha- 
bet, the letters are repeated as a a, b b, c c, or 
2 A, 2 B, 2 c, and so on. 

Occasionally the third page of a sheet bears a 
subsidiary signature, marked b 2, c 2, d 2, etc., 
according to the signature on the first page. A 
second signature is hardly necessary, except in 
the case of an inset or offcut of a sheet, and it 
will be noticed that in the signature the figure 
is placed after the letter. This is really only 
requisite in certain sizes of books, duodecimo or 
odiodecimo, by reason of the binder not being 


able to fold up a sheet properly without first 
cutting off a small sedion and insetting it within 
the larger portion ; this second signature thus 
a(5ling as a check on its proper sheet. 

Another feature which imparts value to a Book Some me- 
is the piftorial portion, if the subject is one re- ^^^^^ p^ ^'" 

• 11 ^ J.- lustratinff 

quirmg illustration. ^^^^^ ^ 

There are two kinds of pictures in relief, 
which may be incorporated with the type and 
printed by the same operation. We mean the 
hand-engraved woodcuts and the " process " 
blocks. These process blocks are mechanically 
produced by the aid of photography ; this system 
having improved so vastly during the last few 
years, a great future is, no doubt, before it. 

These blocks can be made at a nominal 
expense from almost anything, from pen-and- 
ink drawings, prints, drawings from nature (we 
mean dired: from the objedt), or even from 
photographs, and some very beautiful effects 
have been obtained by the many processes now 
practised. For some purposes they even sur- 
pass the engraved woodcuts so laboriously and 
expensively produced by the graver, because 
the work of the artist sometimes loses part of 
its character when it is engraved by hand. 

Another process for illustrating books is the 
intaglio system, executed on steel or copper, 
distincfl from the relief. This cannot be well 
employed with type, because it requires a sepa- 
rate printing, and perhaps is not in keeping with 
the type if placed in the middle of a page. It 


is admirably suited for full-page illustrations, 
and is generally used for the better class of 
volumes. These plates are engraved both by 
hand and process, photography still being the 
medium in this last instance. These mechani- 
cally produced plates are what are called photo- 
gravures, and, as in the case of the relief process 
blocks, admirable effed:s are often secured. 

In addition to these two styles of illustration, 
lithography, autotyjpe, Woodbury-type, and 
many other processes are occasionally used. 
Space will not permit our going into the details 
of these different methods, but we will say that 
each has its special charad:eri sties, and perhaps 
merits, though we ourselves prefer that the 
illustrated parts of a book should be printed 
entirely by the same method, letterpress fashion, 
in pure relief. 

From a stridlly typographical point of view, 
it is best that the illustrations, if they are de- 
signed specially for the work and are intended 
to be used in the midst of type, should be of 
such a nature as to be in harmony with the 
type. This, of course, is a purely decorative 
idea, but one that is worthy of being carried 
out as far as possible. The reader may be re- 
ferred to some book illustrations which have 
been designed from time to time by such artists 
as Walter Crane, Lewis Day, and Heywood 

Obviously these remarks cannot always be 
applied or ad:ed on ; therefore, when some other 
kind of illustration has to be employed, the 


nature of the type and paper must be considered, 
or perhaps adapted to the requirements of the 
method seleded. 

This is the last stage in the produdion of a The bind- 
Book, and the question should be considered as ingofbooks. 
to whether the book is to have a temporary or a 
permanent binding. Paper or cloth answer for 
immediatepurposes,andleather for a permanency. 

Taking the temporary binding first : it is 
important, if this fastening up is merely a 
tentative one, that the edges should not be cut, 
but opened carefully with a knife, if to be read 
before receiving its final covering. 

There are many ways of doing up books 
temporarily. They may be in loose paper 
wrappers or in cloth, which is generally called 
publisher's binding, or " case work," the sheets 
being simply encased in boards. If a book is 
of an ephemeral character, the edges may be 
cut at once ; otherwise they should be left un- 
touched, or merely trimmed on the side and at 
the foot. 

There are different expressions used in con- 
nediion with the description of edges, which we 
venture to repeat. " Cut edges " are those cut 
perfecflly smooth with a machine all round, and 
possibly with a total disregard of the margins ; 
** trimmed edges " are those which have the 
fore-edge and tail lightly cut, thus leaving the 
heads and bolts (on the fore-edge) unopened. 
The term " untouched " or " unopened " edges 
is obvious to all. The term " uncut edges," 


used by the second-hand bookseller, does not 
mean necessarily that a book has not been 
opened, but simply that it has not been cut 
down by machine. 

Books issued with uncut edges can be opened 
at will by the purchaser ; in the event of their 
being bound on some future occasion, the mar- 
gins would not suffer when cut for the purpose 
of gilding or marbling. 

The term "bound" is more strictly applied 
to leather work, or at least when there is some 
leather used in the binding — each copy being 
separately bound together and not simply cased. 
There are several degrees of binding in this 
form : " quarter bound," having a leather back 
with cloth or paper sides ; " Roxburghe " is a 
term sometimes used for this style of binding, 
with gilt top and cloth sides. " Half bound," 
the same with the addition of leather corners ; 
" full bound," when wholly encased in leather. 

If the volume has been printed on handmade 
paper, the heads only need be cut and gilt. 
This plan prevents dirt from getting between 
the leaves. It is a good rule, when taking such 
a book from its receptacle, to blow the dust 
gently off the top before opening it. This ac- 
cumulation of dust is a drawback from which 
even the best regulated libraries suffer unless 
the volumes happen to be in air-tight glazed 

The use of wire in sewing is to be deprecated, 
and cotton or silk thread is recommended instead. 
Wire tears the paper and frequently leaves a 


rusty mark on the leaves. These faults, to- 
gether with the sometimes excessive cutting 
down of margins, are great evils in the eyes of 
a book-lover. 

Expensive plates should not be stitched or 
pasted in without the aid of a guard of strong 
paper or linen, and then they should be sewn in 
with the different secftions of a work. 

Where a large number of copies of any work 
has been printed off it is best to bind a portion 
only, in case the work should not create a 

There are rules laid down for the binding of 
works on certain subjects, if one is desirous of 
forming a library, each in a different colour of 
leather ; but this must be left to the taste of the 
owner. However, some regard should be given 
to the nature of the work. Historical books 
should be in a distind: shade from those, say, 
on theology ; dictionaries and other works of re- 
ference being bound in a different hue from that 
which would be chosen for poetry, and so on. 

Vellum and parchment are both largely used 
in the binding of books. They are durable, but 
soil quickly. 

The proper and full title should be lettered 
on the back of the volume, together with the 
author's name, with the date at foot. This 
rule will save a great deal of unnecessary hand- 
ling when a particular book is sought for. 

Having now briefly discussed the questions 
of type, paper, sizes and margins of books, the 
selection and choice of style to be adopted for 


any one volume is a matter of taste and fancy, 
and no exad: rules can therefore be laid down ; 
the nature and bulk of the work must of course 
first be considered. 

We have somewhere seen it suggested that 
dictionaries and encyclopaedias should be quarto 
or folio, and other classes of books should be 
something else ; but when we look round we 
find such reference works ranging from a pocket 
volume to a ponderous folio in size. There- 
fore the choice of size must still remain an open 
question, and the same remark applies to all other 
kinds of literature. 

The issue We have now arrived at the second portion of 
*^^Kv°^^ ^y our treatise : the issue of Books by private or 
and bvsub- Public means. We will take the first sedtion at 
scription. once, and give some account of the method of 

The first step is to find a suitable publisher, 
one who is willing to undertake the charge of 
the proposed work. To do this it is necessary 
to submit the MS. to him for his consideration. 
The suggestions we made in the opening of 
this work with regard to neatly-written MS. 
must be remembered. 

In large firms competent and special readers 
are retained for the purpose of reporting on the 
merits of proposed works, and their opinion 
is generally considered final, especially if the 
publisher is to take whole or part risk. 

There are usually three methods of agree- 
ment adopted. In the first the author would 


part with his copyright for a lump sum, and 
perhaps receive a royahy on all copies sold, the 
publisher undertaking all risk. The second 
method is where the profits are equally divided, 
termed the " half-profit " system, after expenses 
have been paid. The third is called " publish- 
ing on commission," the author paying all 
expenses of producflion and advertising, and 
allowing the publisher a commission on all 
copies ad:ually sold ; the publisher accounting 
to the author at the trade price, and copies, 1 3 
as 12 or 25 as 24, according to the value of the 
book, less review and presentation copies, but 
all out-of-pocket expenses on these " gratis " 
copies being charged to the account. 

As different publishers have each some little 
variation in dealing with their clients, it would 
be invidious to go into details, but it is strongly 
advised that only well-known publishers be 

Some publishing houses make a speciality of 
certain subjeds ; consequently they have better 
means for pushing works which bear on their 
particular branch of literature. It is obviously 
important that the author should take this into 

All arrangements should be in writing, and it 
is of the utmost importance that any agreement 
entered into should be thoroughly understood. 

Books are by no means always real successes 
from a commercial point of view, and a publisher 
oftens runs a great risk in taking a work unless 
it is from a well-known writer ; therefore his 


terms are adjusted with a view to protecting 
himself and the author too, supposing he has 
some share in the cost of production. 

It is on record that pubUshers have some- 
times made very handsome additions to their 
payments when a book has achieved an un- 
looked-for success, much credit being due to 
them for this extension. The author may place 
himself in the hands of a respectable firm and 
rely on fair dealing. 

With regard to privately issued books by 
subscription, there are two ways of proceeding. 
If the author is satisfied that there is a demand 
for his work, he will have it printed at his 
own expense, and meanwhile issue some pro- 
spectuses to secure orders. If he desired to feel 
the market, so to speak, he would issue a pro- 
speCtus first, and when he had received sufii- 
cient orders to warrant the risk, he would then 
put the work into the hands of the printer. 

In order to secure some part of the subscrip- 
tions in advance, an additional advantage is 
sometimes offered by accepting a smaller sub- 
scription at first, which would be raised on issue. 

If the printer seleCted for the book is ac- 
customed to this class of work, he can impart 
useful information and advice to his client. 

Some such form as the accompanying is 
generally used for soliciting subscriptions. First 
the author would draw up a scheme showing 
what was intended, and attach the following 
order-form : 



Please enter my name as a subscriber for 

cop of the work entitled 

by for which I undertake to 

pay _ on delivery [or inclose'\. 




This scheme may be modified or enlarged 
according to requirements, but if there are to 
be two editions, large and small papers, this 
should be explained in the prospectus, and 
room allowed in the order-form for choice. 

In all editions limited as to the number of 
copies, a certificate similar to the following 
should be attached : 

*^* This is to certify that only 
copies of this edition have been printed, all of 
which are numbered [and signed]. 


If there are two editions to be printed, they 
may both be expressed in the certificate, but 
the numbers of the two sizes can either be 
distincSt and each start at No. i, or be con- 
tinuous if preferred, taking the large paper or 
special copies first. 


Publishers frequently issue books in the 
ordinary way, which have a limited large paper 
edition struck off at the same time, generally 
subscribed for in the manner just mentioned. 

Copyright. There are many details in connection with the 
issue of a Book which are worthy of mention, 
and we will endeavour to make them as clear 
as possible in a small compass. 

Copyright in this country is secured for the 
full term of the lifetime of the author, and for 
a further term of seven years commencing at 
the time of his death ; provided that, if the 
said term of seven years shall expire before the 
end of forty-two years from the first publication 
of the book, the copyright shall endure for 
forty-two years. The copyright in any book 
published after the death of its author shall 
endure for the term of forty-two years from 
the first publication thereof, and shall be the 
property of the proprietor of the author's manu- 
script from which it shall be first published. 

Registra- WiTH regard to Registration at Stationers' 
tion. Hall. This is not a compulsory matter, but 

should anyone desire to bring an ad:ion for in- 
fringement of title or copyright it must then be 
registered (if this has not already been done), 
the date of publication being the criterion of 
priority. A five-shilling fee is exadted by the 
Stationers' Company when the application is 
made and the title of the volume duly entered. 
Very frequently the fadt of registration is ex- 


pressed at the bottom of the title-page, but this 
is not really necessary if the date is there. 

Directly a work is ready to be issued by the Review 
publisher, it is customary to send certain copies copies, 
for review to various newspapers and journals. 
The charadler of the work must be considered 
before sending them out broadcast, or perhaps 
they may be sent where they are not likely to 
be reviewed. Good notices of a work materially 
add to its success. The publisher generally 
knows where to place these copies, but the 
author should mention any particular papers 
to which he desires them to be sent. 

All criticisms on the book are filed by the 
publisher, and use may be made of the best of 
them should it be necessary to send out a 
prosped:us, or extrad:s from these opinions of 
the press may be included in any advertisement 
issued by the publisher. 

By Ad: of Parliament five copies of each Deman 
work, and of each subsequent edition, must be 
despatched to the libraries of the British 
Museum, London ; Bodleian, Oxford ; Uni- 
versity, Cambridge ; Trinity College, Dublin ; 
and Advocates', Edinburgh. These last four 
are generally all sent through one official agent 
here in London, who gives a receipt for them. 
If by chance these copies for the libraries are 
delayed or overlooked, a demand is soon made 
for them, and must be complied with. 

of Public 




Privately printed books of a limited number, 
not sold in the ordinary way, or advertised, 
are exempt from these demands. 

Advertising a vv^ork is another very important 
matter. In arranging for this with a publisher, 
supposing it is a commission book, the author 
should give some limit of expense to which he 
desires to go. If the advertisement can be in- 
cluded with other books in a general way, the 
expense is not so great ; but the announcements 
of works singly cost a good deal. 

Insurance too must not be overlooked if the 
book is a commission one, and the author may 
either insure the stock himself, or give instruc- 
tions that it should be covered. 

Presentation or gratis copies are frequently 
sent out in order to give the book a fillip, the 
copies generally allotted to the writer as 
*' author's copies " probably being distributed 
amongst his more immediate friends. 

Casting off No exad: rules can be laid down for this purpose, 
copy- manuscript copy varying so much in character of 

writing, and having sometimes many deletions 
and insertions. Then, again, there are frequently 
differences in size — some sheets being quarto and 
others perhaps folio. The following rules may 
be taken as a rough guide for immediate pur- 
poses. Seled a book which shall be your model ; 
count a number of lines, and obtain the average 
number of words in a line : then multiply these 
by the amount of lines in a page : this will give 



you the total number of words comprised in a 
page of type. To obtain greater accuracy, the 
whole page may be counted throughout. The 
next step is to find the number of words in 
your MS., frequently a difficult task. If your 
copy is a fair one, treat it exad:ly in the same 
way, making sure that you have obtained a 
good average. Then multiply this produd: by 
the number of folios your MS. contains. If the 
copy is ill-assorted, every line of each chapter or 
se(ftion must be counted off, and then multiplied 
by the average number of words in a line. Some 
allowance must be made for notes, if any, and 
for short chapter pages, if the book is so divided. 
When the gross amount has been arrived at, 
this must be divided by the number of words 
contained in the page of print which was selected 
as your pattern. It is not possible in writing to 
deal with intricate MSS. ; it requires a very 
experienced and pracflical person to estimate 
the length of these. 

These comprise all charges for smaller types Extras. 
than text matter, not easily foreseen or calcul- 
able except in the case of printed copy, termed 
" reprint." Extraneous or miscellaneous matter, 
such as tables, foreign languages, etc., is more 
expensive in composition and ranks as extras. 
Corred;ions and alterations made in proofs are 
also charged as extras, because the extent of 
labour likely to be involved is not apparent 
when a volume is put in hand. 



Casting off A ROUGH and ready rule to cast off the number 

Printed q£ words of the English tongue contained in 

one square inch of printed matter is : 

Solid. Thin leaded. Thick leaded. 

Great Primer 7 5 3 

EngHsh II 8 6 

Pica 14 12 9 

Small Pica 17 15 13 

Long Primer 21 18 15 

Bourgeois 28 24 20 

Brevier 32 27 22 

Minion 38 32 28 

Nonpareil 47 41 35 

Pearl 69 60 40 

Moulding. This is a temporary process adopted for certain 
classes of work likely to be reprinted, when 
it is not convenient for the printer to keep a 
large amount of type standing idle. It is the 
preliminary stage to stereotyping by the patent 
or paper process. Papier-mache moulds are 
formed by placing several sheets of prepared 
paper together, pasted with a special composi- 
tion. This, whilst still moist, is laid on the 
surface of the type, and then beaten with a 
large brush. It thus forms a " matrix," which 
is dried by artificial means. These moulds 
may then be stored away. When required, 
they are cast in metal, each page being faithfully 
reproduced. The results obtained in printing 
are almost as good as from the original type. 
This is an inexpensive method if there is any 
doubt about the probability of a future reprint. 


because these moulds can be stereotyped from 
at any time afterwards. 

This is performed by two distind: modes. Stereo- 
The first and cheaper is that just referred to, *yP'"g- 
i.e., the paper process. The second process is 
the plaster, which is the better of the two. 
The matrix is formed with plaster, poured over 
the surface of the type. This is afterwards 
baked, and the metal poured into it, thus giving 
a reproduction. This method is more satis- 
fadiory as giving a sharper and evener stereo- 
type, but it is the slower plan, and hence is 
more expensive. 

This is the art of duplicating by a galvanic Ekaro 
deposit of copper, which leaves a mere filmy typing- 
shell, which is afterwards backed up with 
type-metal to give it the requisite thickness and 
strength. This process is the more durable 
method, but costs even more than the plaster 
stereotype. It is well adapted for works that 
have to be reprinted many times, because the 
face is harder, and it will therefore give off a 
larger number of impressions with less wear and 
tear. It is always used for duplicating wood- 
cuts, a careful electrotype being almost equal to 
the original block from which it is made. If 
woodcuts are to be preserved they should be 
eledlrotyped, and the originals taken care of. 
When worn, a fresh eled;rotype may then be 
taken from the wood-block. 


Hints on All pen-and-ink sketches for this purpose should 
drawing for be pure " black and white." Freshly-made 
process Indian ink should be used on thin white and 


smooth card, the Bristol boards obtainable from 
most artists' colourmen being well adapted for 
this purpose. The lines should be firm and 
distinct, the depths of light and shade being 
obtained by thick and thin lines respediively ; 
the distance between the lines also helping this 
effed:. The drawing should be made larger 
than the size intended for the block ; from one 
and a half times to double the size is a good 
rule. A smaller amount of work thrown into 
the sketch is often more effe(flive than an excess 
of pen-and-ink work. Care and attention to 
these details, with practice, will soon enable 
anyone with a knowledge of drawing to over- 
come any difficulties which might otherwise be 

Half-titles. The use of this fly-title, sometimes called a 
bastard title, is for the purpose of protedling 
the general or full title from injury. Without 
this additional leaf in front, the title-page, being 
the first in the book, would be very likely to 
get soiled. 

Cost of The relative difference in value of a good 
paper. machine-made as compared with a handmade 

paper may be roughly estimated as one-third. 
Whatman paper is a little dearer, and may be 
reckoned as four times the value of a machine 
paper. In limited editions of a work, the 


question of price is not so much to be con- 
sidered, as the total amount of paper absorbed 
is not great. For this reason, it is advisable to 
use the best. 

A REAM of writing or handmade paper usually Reams of 
consists of twenty quires of twenty-four sheets P^per- 
each, 480 in all ; but machine-made paper is 
generally made up to 516 sheets (twenty-one 
and a half quires), termed "printers' reams." 
As long numbers are mostly printed on these 
papers, each ream thus gives something more 
than 500 perfed: copies, and allows for waste 
and spoilage. 



DVJNCE sheets{or copies). — Sometimes supplied 
for simultaneous publication or for preliminary 
Antiqua. — A German expression for roman 

Arabic figures. — Ordinary figures, roman or 
italic, thus — i 2 3, etc., as distin6l from roman numerals. 
Atlas. — A size of paper, 36 x 26 inches. 
Author s proof. — A proof bearing corre6tions made by the 
author or editor. A. P. is the short expression. 

Backs. — Referring to the " back " margin of pages — that part 

of a book which is sewn when bound. 
Bastard title. — A fly or half-title before the full title of a 

Black-letter. — A general expression used to indicate old 

English, text, or church type. 
Bleed. — When a book or pamphlet has been cut down too 

much, so as to touch the printed manner. 
Blind blocked (or tooled). — Lettering on book covers not 

inked or gilt, simply impressed. 
Block. — A general term used, embracing woodcuts, electros, 

or zincos. 
Body of the work. — The text or subje<5t-matter of a volume 

is thus described to distinguish it from the preliminary, 

appendix, or notes. 
Bolts. — The folds at the heads and fore-edge are thus described 

by the binder in receiving instrudtions for opening or not 

opening the edges of a book. 


Bottom notes. — Footnotes are sometimus thus called, to 

distinguish them from sidenotes. 
Bourgeois. — Pronounced Burjoice ; the name of a type one 

size larger than Brevier and one size smaller than Long 

Primer, equal to half a Great Primer in body. 
Brevier. — The name of a type one size larger than Minion, 

and one smaller than Bourgeois. 
Broadside. — A sheet printed one side only. 

Calendered paper. — Paper very highly rolled or glazed, much 

used for the printing of illustrated books or magazines. 
Capitals. — Letters other than lower case or small capitals. 

Thus, CAPITALS. Shortly called " caps." 
Caps, and Small Caps. — CAPITALS and small capitals. 
Catchline. — The Hne w^hich contains the " catch-word " at 

the bottom of a page and which is the first one on the 

next page. 
Certificate. — A guarantee of a limited number of copies only 

having been printed of any work, usually placed near the 

Circuit edges. — Books, generally bibles or prayer-books, are 

sometimes bound with the covers projecting, and turned 

over to protedt the edges. 
Clarendon. — A bold or fat-faced type is generally thus 

described ; the older founts were called " Egyptian." 
Clean proof. — A term used to discriminate between a printer's 

first proof and one ready to be sent out to the author. 
Clean sheets. — Sheets put aside as they are printed off to show 

the progress of the work. 
Cliche. — French term for a cast, usually applied to stereo or 

eledtro duplicates. 
Cloth boards. — Books when bound in cloth cases are described 

as being in " cloth boards." 
Cobb paper. — A paper largely used by bookbinders for the 

sides of half-bound books. It is made in various shades of 

Colophon. — An inscription or tailpiece, usually a printer's 

imprint, at the end of a book. 
Columbia. — A size of paper 344. x 23^ inches. 
Cropped. — A book is said to be " cropped " when cut down too 

Cut edges. — A book which has been cut on the three sides is 

said to have cut edges. 


Cut-in-notes. — Sidenotes which are inserted within the text 
at the side, instead of in the margin. 

Decimo-sexto. — A bibliographical term for sixteenmo — written 

shortly, i6mo. 
Deckle. — The raw, rough edge of handmade paper is thus 

Dele. — To omit or expunge, indicated thus S. 
Demy. — A size of printing paper, 224; ^ ^7^ inches. 
Diamond. — The name of a type one size larger than Gem, 

and one size smaller than Pearl, equal to half a Bourgeois 

in body. 
Double foolscap. — A size of printing paper, 27 x 17 inches. 
Double Pica. — The name of a type one size larger than 

Paragon, and one size smaller than Two-line Picaj its 

body is two Small Picas in depth. 
Double pott. A size of printing paper, 25 x 15^ inches. 
Dropped head. — Chapter or first pages driven down at the 

top are thus called. 
Dummy copy. — A thickness or size copy, generally made of 

blank leaves, to represent the actual bulk of a work not 

quite complete. 
Duodecimo. — Commonly called twelvemo, a sheet of paper 

folded into twelve leaves — written shortly, i2mo. 
Dutch papers. — Van Gelder's handmade paper of various 

sizes, made in Holland. 

Editions de luxe. — French colloquialism for the large paper 

editions issued of first-class books. 
Eighteenmo. — A sheet folded into eighteen leaves (see " Odlo- 

decimo ") — written shortly, i8mo. 
Ele£irotyping. — The art of duplicating woodcuts, etc., by a 

thin galvanic deposit of copper, afterwards backed up by 

ordinary metal similar to that used for type, but not so 

End leaves. — The blank flyleaves at either end of a book. 

Sometimes called " end-papers." 
English. — The name of a type one size larger than Pica and 

one size smaller than Great Primer. 

Fine paper. — The best edition ofa bookj sometimes expressed 
by the letters F. P. 


Finishing. — A term used for the lettering or tooling on the 

cover of a book. 
Flat pull (or impression). — A simple proof without under- or 

Flexible. — A term used in giving diredtions to a binder for 

sewing or binding in a style which will permit of the book 

opening quite flat. 
Flyleaf. — A blank leaf at the ends of a book. 
Fly-title. — The half-title in front of the general title, or which 

divides sections of a work. 
Folio. — A sheet of paper folded in two leaves only. 
Fore-edge. — The outer side edge of a book (distindl from 

head or tail) when folded. 
Format. — The bibliographical expression for size and shape 

of a book. 
Forme. — A printer's term applied to the number of type pages 

which a sheet may contain. 
Forwarding. — The different stages in binding a book between 

the sewing and finishing, i.e.^ lettering the title, colouring 

or gilding the edges, etc. 
Fount. — This term is applied to the whole number of letters 

constituting a complete set of types of any particular class 

of face or body. 
Foxed. — Paper or books stained or mouldy are said to be 

" foxed." 
Fra£lur. — German expression for their text or black-letter 

Full bound. — A term sometimes used to define a book wholly 

bound in leather. 

Galley proofs. — These proofs supplied in slip form — not made 

up into pages. 
Gilt tops. — Books when on handmade paper are sometimes 

bound with the top edges cut and gilt, thus preventing 

them being soiled by the dust that would otherwise colle6l 

if they were left rough. 
Gratis copies. — Applied to the copies of a volume not sold, 

but presented or given away for review, etc. 
Great Primer. — The name of a type one size larger than 

English and one size smaller than Paragon, equalling two 

lines of Bourgeois. 
Guarded. — Books are said to be " guarded " when the plates 


are mounted or sewn on guards (as maps are), instead of 
being stitched or pasted in in the ordinary way. 

Half hound. — Books partly bound in leather, with cloth or 

paper sides. 
Half-title. — The sub-title in front of the full title. 
Heads. — A term applied to the margin of books at the top 

of the page. 

ImperfeSilons. — Sheets required by a binder to complete books 

imperfect through bad gathering, collating, or spoiled 

Imperial. — A size of printing paper, 30 x 22 inches. 
In quires. — Books in sheets not bound up. 
In slip. — Matter set up and pulled on galleys before making- 

up into pages. 
In the press. — A work in course of printing is thus announced 

to the trade or public. 
Indent. — To set a line some little distance back, as in the 

case of a fresh paragraph. 
India paper. — A fine paper used by engravers for proofs, 

which, though generally imparted from China, is called 

« India." 
India rubbered. — Books when interspersed with plates are 

sometimes coated at the back with a solution of india 

rubber to save stitching or expense of guarding : when 

open the book will lie perfectly flat. 
Inferior figures and letters. — Made to range at the bottom 

of a letter, thus — , z j a e i o u 
Initial letters. — Large block or floriated letters used at the 

commencement of a chapter or work. 
Inset. — A sheet, or part of a sheet, to be placed inside another 

sheet to complete sequence of pagination. 
Intaglio. — Printing, such as from copperplate ; the reverse of 

"relief" printing. 
Italic. — The sloping charadters, distindl from roman types, 

invented by Aldus Manutius^ the Venetian printer. 

"Japanese paper — Handmade paper with a vellum surface 
manufa6lured in Japan. 

Keep standing. — An order to keep the type still up pending 
possibility of reprint. 


Large paper. — The best copies of a work with large margins, 

bibliographically termed editions de luxe. Sometimes 

expressed by the initials L. P. 
Leaded matter. — Type with leads between the lines, in con- 

tradistindion to " solid " matter. 
Leatherette or Leatheroid. — An imitation of leather, usually 

made of embossed paper. 
Letter paper. — This term is applied to quarto paper, note 

paper being oitavo. 
Letterpress. — Printed matter from type as distindl from 

lithographic or plate printing. 
Lining papers. — End or paste-down papers used by book- 
LL. — The abbreviation used by booksellers to indicate the 

number of " leaves " in a book. 
Long Primer. — The name of a type one size larger than 

Bourgeois and one size smaller than Small Pica, equal to 

two Pearls. 
Lower-case letters. — The small letters as used here, a, b, c, d, 

e, f, g, etc. 

Mackle. — A printed sheet with a slurred appearance, owing 

to some mechanical defeat in the impression. 
Make-up. — To measure ofF matter into pages. 
Marbled edges. — The cut edges of books are often marbled 

instead of being gilt. 
Margin. — The blank paper surrounding a page of print. 
Marginalia. — The bibliographical term for notes in the margin. 
Medium. — A size of printing paper, 24 x 19 inches. 
Minion. — The name of a type one size smaller than Brevier. 
Moulds. — Generally understood as the preliminary stage in 

stereotyping by paper process. Moulds of course are used 

for plaster work and ele6lrotyping too. 
Movable. — A general term applied to type to distinguish it 

from stereotype, etc. 

N. D. — A bookseller's method of denoting " no date " on a 

Nonpareil. — The name of a type one size larger than Pearl, 

half of a Pica in depth of body. 
Note papers. — These papers are odtavo in shape, but of 

various sizes ; letter papers being quarto shape, and also of 

various sizes. 


OSiavo. — A sheet of paper folded into eight, shortly written 

thus — 8vo. 
OSiodec'imo. — A sheet folded into eighteen (see "Eighteenmo") 

— written shortly, 1 8mo. 
Off-cut. — That part of the sheet which has to be cut ofF in 

order that the sheet may be folded corredtly, as in a 

" twelves." 
Off-set. — The set-ofF of ink from one sheet to another, the 

result of insufficient drying or bad ink. 
Old English. — Founts of type of black-letter chara<51:er. 

Sometimes expressed by O. E. 
O. P. — A publisher's term signifying that a book is " out of 

Overcast. — A particular kind of book-sewing which allows 

the book when open to lie flat. 
O'jerlays. — The term for the special making-ready of an 

illustration, consisting of several thicknesses of paper cut out 

to give light and shade to the design. 
Overplus. — The "plus" or "over" copies of a definite 

number in printing. 

P. — An abbreviation for the word " page." The plural is 

Paragon. — The name of a type one size larger than Great 

Primer and one size smaller than Double Pica, equalling 

two Long Primers in depth. 
Paste-downs. — The blank flyleaves, sometimes coloured, at 

either end of a book, which are pasted down on the covers. 
Pearl. — The name of a type one size larger than Diamond 

and one size smaller than Ruby, equalling half a Long 

Primer in depth. 
Pica. — The name of a type one size larger than Small Pica 

and one smaller than English ; it is equal to two Nonpareils 

in body. 
Points. — An expression applied generally to all marks of 

Post. — A size of printing paper, 20 x 16 inches. 
Preliminary. — Any matter coming before the main text of a 

work — title, preface, contents, etc. 
Press proof. — The final proof passed by the author or pub- 
lisher " for press." 
Prima. — In reading a work sheet by sheet the first word of 


the ensuing signature is marked by the reader as the 

" prima." 
Process blocks. — Illustrations produced by any mechanical 

Proof. — A trial print of any forme of type, plates, or blocks. 
Proof. — A bookbinder's term used when some rough edges 

are left on a trimmed book, thus showing it has not been 

cut down excessively. 
Publisher's binding. — An ordinary term used for cloth binding. 

Quarter bound. — Books bound with back only in leather. 

Quaternions. — Paper folded in sections of four sheets. 

Quarto. — A size given when a sheet is folded into four leaves 
written shortly, 4to. 

^ery. — A mark made on a proof by the printer to call 
attention to a possible error, sometimes expressed by a note 
of interrogation (?). 

^uinternions . — Paper folded into se6lions of five sheets. 

^ire. — Sections of a ream of paper, consisting of twenty- 
four sheets. 

Quires. — Books in sheets, /.^., not bound, are said to be in 

Ream. — Paper in parcels or bundles of a certain size, a printer's 

ream being 516 sheets. Handmade and drawing papers 

slightly differ in the number of sheets, sometimes 472, 

480, or 500. 
Ke£lo. — The right-hand pages of any work. 
Register. — The exa6l adjustment of pages back to back in 

printing the second side of a sheet. 
Relief printing. — Letterpress and block printing come under 

the head of *' relief," as distinct from lithography or plate 

Removes.- — The difference between one size of type and 

another is expressed by this term. 
R. P. — These initials stand for "reprint." 
Retree. — The outside, rejected, or damaged paper of different 

reams, marked x x 
Roman. — The particular kind of type in which book and 

other work is composed (such as this fount), as distinguished 

from italic or fancy types. Called "antiqua" by the 



Roman numerals. — The pagination of the preliminary matter 

of a volume is generally expressed by these chara6lers, 

thus — i, ii, iii, iv, etc. 
Rox burgh e binding. — A quarter- bound book with top edge 

Royal. — A size of printing paper, 25 x 20 inches. 
Rubricated matter . — Sentences or paragraphs printed in red ink. 
Runners. — Figures or letters placed down the length of a 

page to indicate the particular number or position of any 

given line. 

Script. — Type similar in chara£ter to handwriting. 

Serif. — The fine Hnes on the top and bottom of a letter, as 
in H. A sanserif is H- 

Set off. — When the ink ofF-sets from one sheet to another. 

Sextodecimo. — A bibliographical term for i6mo. 

Shoulder notes. — Marginal notes placed at the top corner of 
the page. 

Sidenotes. — Marginal notes at the side, distin6l from "foot- 

Signature. — The letter or figure at the foot of the first page 
of a sheet, to guide the binder in folding ; also used by 
printers to identify any particular sheet. 

Sixteenmo. — A sheet folded into sixteen leaves — written 
shortly, i6mo. 

Size copy. — A thickness or dummy copy supplied to the book- 
binder, in order that a specimen binding may be shown. 

Slips. — Applied to matter not made up into pages, but pulled 
as proofs in long slips. 

Small capitals. — The smaller capitals, as distin6l from the full 
capitals, thus — printing, indicated in MS. by two strokes 
= underneath. 

Small paper. — The more ordinary copies of a work. Some- 
times expressed by the initials S. P. 

Small Pica. — The name of a type one size larger than Long 
Primer and one size smaller than Pica, equal to half the 
body of a Double Pica. 

Sprinkled edges. — Cut edges of books are sometimes finely 
sprinkled with colour to prevent them from getting soiled. 

Stabbed. — A form of stitching by piercing or stabbing, used 
mostly for cheap pamphlet work. 

Start. — Leaves of books are said to " start " when the sewing 
is defedlive and the leaves are loose. 


Stereotypes. — Casts of pages of type, etc., in metal, either by 

" plaster " or " paper " processes. 
Stet. — A Latin word used to denote the cancelling of any 

correction marked in copy or proof, and indicated by 

dots underneath, thus 

Style of the house. — Most printing offices have their own 

particular methods in the matter of setting titles, quotations, 

spellings, etc. 
Sub-title. — The bastard or half-title placed before the general 

title of a work. Also called "fly-title." 
Super-calendered paper. — Highly rolled paper for dry printing. 
Superior letters and figures. — Small letters cast at the top of 

the shoulder of type, used for references or abbreviations, 

Super royal. — A size of printing paper, 27^ x 204- inches. 
Swash letters. — Seventeenth century italic capitals with tails 
and flourishes, thus— c/f "B T> 31 .:\^etc. 

Tails. — The bottom or tale-end of a page. 

Ternions. — A bibliographical expression for three sheets folded 

together in folio. 
Thick leads. — Leads cast four to the pica in thickness are 

generally thus termed. 
Thickness copy. — See "Size copy." 
Thin leads. — Leads eight to the pica in thickness, two thin 

leads being equal to one thick lead. 
Thirty-twomo. — A sheet of paper folded into thirty-two leaves, 

written shortly thus — 32mo. 
Trigesimo-secundo. — The bibliographical term for " thirty- 
twomo," written shortly — 32mo. 
Trimmed edges. — Edges of books cut or trimmed sufficiently 

to make them tidy without opening heads or bolts. 
Turned commas. — These are used at the commencement of an 

extra6t or quoted matter, thus " and at the end by ". 

Sometimes called " inverted commas." 
Twelvemo. — A sheet of paper folded into twelve leaves, 

written thus — i2mo. Also called "duodecimo." 
Two-line letters. — Plain initial letters the depth of two lines, 

used at the commencement of a chapter or work. 
Typography. — The art or style of printing from movable 


Uncut edges. — Books not cut down, but not necessarily " un- 


Unopened edges. — Applied to books the edges of which have 
not been opened. 

Verso. — The obverse or back of a leaf — the reverse of "redlo." 
Vigesimo-quarto. — The bibliographical term for " twenty- 

fourmo " — w^ritten shortly, 24mo. 
Vignettes. — A class of illustration w^ith the edges undefined, 

that is, work tapering or thinning ofFto the extremities. 

Waste. — Surplus odd sheets of a book beyond the plus copies. 
Watermark. — The wire-mark woven to any particular design 

in a sheet of paper. 
White. — The space between any lines or words of type. 
White edges. — Edges of books simply cut, not coloured or 

White out. — To space or " branch out " any composed 

matter, such as displayed or advertisement work. 
White paper. — A general term used for unprinted paper, 

whether white or coloured. 
Whole-hound. — The term applied so books bound entirely in 

leather of any kind. 
Wire-mark. — Applied more particularly to those " laid " 

marks in paper which are seen when the sheet is held up 

to the light. 
Wrong fount. — Letters of a different charafter or series mixed 

with another fount, although perhaps of the same body. 

W.F. is the short form. 

Xylography. — Applied generally to the cutting and printing of 
old block-books. 

Zincography. — The art of producing engravings on zinc by a 
mechanical process. 


Advertising, 32. 
Authors' corredlions, 5. 
Autotype, 22. 

Back margin, 16. 
Bastard title, 36. 
Binding, 23. 
Books, sizes of, 19. 
Bound books, 24. 

Calendered papers, 15, 
Capitals, 2. 
Case work, 23. 
Caslon, William, 10. 
Casting ofF copy, 32. 
Casting off printed matter, 

Certificate of number, 29. 

Chara6ler of types, 9. 

Clarendon type, 12. 

Copper engravings, 21. 

Copy, 2. 

Copyright, 30. 

Corre6lions, 5, 6, 7, 8. 

Corredlors of the press, 9. 

Cost of paper, 37. 

Cut edges, 19. 

Deckle edge, 14. 
Duodecimo, 18. 

Edition de luxe, 16, i; 
Egyptian type, 12. 
Ele(Si:rotyping, 35. 
Extradl matter, 3. 
Extras, 33. 

Fly-title, 36. 
Folio, 18. 
Footnotes, 3. 
Fore-edge margin, 16. 
Full-bound books, 24. 

Glossary, 39. 
Gratis copies, 32. 

Half-bound books, 24. 
Half profit system, 27. 
Half titles, 36. 
Handmade paper, 14. 
Head margin, 17. 

Illustrations, 21. 
Index, 3, 4. 
Insurance, 32. 
Intaglio, 21. 
Inverted commas, 3. 
Italic, 2. 

Japanese paper, 16. 



Laid paper, 14. 
Large paper, sizes of, 18. 
Leading of types, II. 
Leaves, 2. 
Ligature letters, 9. 
Lithography, 22. 

Machine-made paper, 14, 15. 
Manuscript, i. 
Margins, 16. 
Modern faced type, 9. 
Moulding, 34. 

Oaavo, 18. 
Odlodecimo, i 8. 
Old faced type, 9. 

Pages, 2. 
Paper, 14. 

Paper stereotyping, 35. 
Papier mache moulds, 34. 
Paragraphs, 2. 
Plaster stereotyping, 35. 
Plates, 25. 

Preliminary matter, 3. 
Presentation copies, 32. 
Press criticisms, 31. 
Printers' readers, 9. 
Printers' reams, 37. 
Privately printed books, 28. 
Process blocks, 21, 36. 
Proof-readers' marks, 7, 8. 
Public libraries, 31. 
Publishers' binding, 23. 
Publishers' readers, 26. 
Publishing, 26. 
Publishing on commission, 

Quarter bound books, 24. 
Quarto, 18. 

Reams of paper, 37. 
References, 3. 
Registration, 30. 
Review copies, 31. 
Revived old style type, g. 
Roxburghe, 24. 

Sextodecimo, i8. 
Signatures, 20. 
Sizes of paper, 15. 
Small capitals, 2. 
Steel engraving, 21. 
Stereotyping, 35. 
Subscription books, 26. 
Subscription forms, 29. 

Tail margin, 1 7. 
Thick leads, 11. 
Thin leads, ii. 
Trade publishing terms, 27, 
Trigesimo-secundo, 18. 
Trimmed edge, 19. 
Type, equivalents of, 11. 
Type, sizes of, 10, 11, 13. 
Types, 9. 

Uncut edges, 19. 

Vellum, 16. 
Vigesimo-quarto, 18. 

Wire sewing, 24. 
Woodbury-type, 22. 
Wove paper, 14. 


Great Primer 
English . . 
Pica . . . 
Small Pica 
Long Primer 
Brevier . 
Minion . 
Pearl . . 

Old Style. 










1 8 



Old Face. 







Old French Roman Capitals 29 

Old Style Roman Capitals 30 

Modern Roman Capitals 31 

Old Face Roman Capitals 32 

Old Style Italic zz 

Modern Italic 34 

Old Face Italic 35 

Bold Face (Clarendon) 36 

Dutch Black Letter 2)7 

Old English Black Letter 38 


EACH of the following specimen pages is divided 
into three sections. The top portion being tJiick 
leaded, the middle one tJiin leaded, and the bottom piece 
without leads, technically called solid. 

The biographical notices here given of some leading 
publishers, printers, and others, are merely excerpts, 
taken mostly from the " Athenaeum," a few being due 
to the " Publishers' Circular." 

The special founts of type peculiar to the Chiswick 
Press have been omitted from these pages, and only 
founts inserted which are common to most printers of 
repute. They are given as samples of average book 
types of the three classes : Caslon's Old Face, Miller and 
Richard's revived Old Style, and some Modern Faces 
by various founders (see page 9 et seq. of the text). 

It should be mentioned that the Old Face types may 
be used with the old-fashioned letters ffiflffftfliffiffl 

fkfb a. 

[ I ] 

Old Style Great Primer. 


— For many years the 
name of Mr. William 
Clowes, whose decease 
occurred on the 19th of May, 1883, 
has been associated with literature, as 
head of one of the largest printing 
establishments in this country. Mr. 

Clowes was the eldest son of William 
Clowes, who in 1803 laid the foun- 
dation of the business known as 
William Clowes and Sons, and he 
entered the office in 1823. His 
father was among the first to com- 
mence steam printing, and was called 
upon to defend an action for nuisance 

brought by his neighbour, the late 
Duke of Northumberland. This led 
to the business in Northumberland 
Court being removed to the present 
site, in Duke Street, Stamford Street, 
whence have emanated some of the 
most important works which the pre- 
sent century has produced. 

AMES HOGG, best known to 
the reading public by being the 
publisher of the collected edi- 
tion of De Quincey's works, was 
apprenticed to James Muirhead, printer and 
proprietor oiiht Edinburgh Advertiser; and 
after his apprenticeship, was in the employ- 
ment of various printers, and then became 
reader of the Caledonian Mercury, a post 

he held until he started in business on his 
own account in Edinburgh. The first book 
he published was "A Narrative of some 
Passages in the History of Eenoolooapik," 
the first Esquimo who visited this country ; 
he was brought to Aberdeen by Captain 
Penny, in the " Neptune," in 1839. The 
" Narrative " was written by Dr. Alexander 
Macdonald, afterwards one of the surgeons 
of the " Erebus " and " Terror," and was 

published in 1841. In 1845 Mr. Hogg 
started the Instritctor, which was con- 
tinued for a period of fifteen years, and 
subsequently Titan, a monthly magazine. 
Mr. Hogg's sons were in partnership with 
him for many years, and the firm (which 
had removed from Edinburgh to London, 
and was dissolved in 1868) published seve- 
ral successful books for children, and made 
a great hit with London Society, which was 
edited by James Hogg, jun. 

[ 2 ] 

Old Style Efzglish. 

[ 3 ] 

Old Style Pica. 

second son of the late Mr. 
George Virtue, was born at Ivy 
Lane, Paternoster Row, in the 
month of May, 1829. On at- 
taining the age of fourteen he 
was apprenticed to his father, and in 1848 was 
sent to the branch estabhshment in New York. 
In a business capacity he made many journeys 
through the States and Canada, returning to this 

country in 1850, when, attaining his majority, he 
was entered at Stationers' Hall as a liveryman of 
the Stationers' Company. Returning to America 
the same year he largely extended the business 
in the United States, and finally came back to 
England in 1855, in which year his father retired 
from active work at Ivy Lane and the City Road. 
Mr. James Virtue succeeded his father, and under 
his management many important works of art 
were published, the Royal, Turner, and Landseer 
Galleries, which appeared first in the Art Journal^ 

being the most prominent. In 1865 the late Mr. 
William Alexander Virtue, younger brother of 
Mr. J. S. Virtue, became a partner in the City 
Road and Ivy Lane businesses, and the house 
began to extend its printing connections. After 
a short period Mr. William Virtue went to the 
United States, and took over all the interest in 
the American branch ; on his death in 1875 the 
business passed into other hands. In 1871 Mr. 
Samuel Spalding became a partner with Mr. J. S. 
Virtue at the City Road, and later, in 1874, Mr. 
F. R. Daldy was admitted. 

»EORGE BELL, the late head of the firm 
of George Bell and Sons, publishers, died 
on the 27th of November, 1890, after three 
weeks' illness. George Bell was born in 
1 8 14 at Richmond in Yorkshire, where 
his father carried on the business of a bookseller. He 
received a good education at the Richmond Grammar 
School, the head master of which was the Rev. James 
Tate, a well-known Horatian scholar (editor of " Horatius 
Restitutus ") and afterwards Canon of St. Paul's. Canon 
Tate prided himself on the fact that from his school 

twelve fellows of Trinity had proceeded, and it was his 
wish that George Bell should also try his fortune at the 
University, but his father's circumstances did not allow 
of this, and he left school at the age of sixteen to assist 
in the business. In a very short time he came up to 
London and entered the house of Whittaker and Co., 
Ave Maria Lane, which was then one of the largest 
wholesale bookselling and publishing businesses in 
London. About the year 1838 he began business on his 
own account as a bookseller in Bouverie Street. His 
aim, however, was to become a publisher, and it was not 
long before he gave shape to an idea which he had 

always entertained. At that time there were few anno- 
tated editions of classical authors, and these consisted 
almost entirely of German publications. His idea was 
to found a library of annotated classics representing the 
best English scholarship of the day. With this view, he 
sought the help of Messrs. Goldwin, Smith, Donaldson, 
George Long, Macleane, Paley, and Blakesley, afterwards 
dean of Lincoln, and the series known as the " Biblio- 
theca Classica" was the result. It was undertaken in 
partnership with Messrs. Whittaker and Co. This was 
followed by smaller series, and ultimately led to the 
formation of a good educational business. He had by 
this time moved to No. 186, Fleet Street, where he became 
associated with Mr. F. R. Daldy. 

[ 4 ] 

Old Style Small Pica. 

[ 5 ] 

Old Style Long Primer. 

HARLES WHITTINGHAM, the founder of 
the Chiswick Press, was born on June i6th, 
1767, at Calledon, in the county of Warwick, 
and died in 1840. He was apprenticed to 
Richard Bird, printer and bookseller, of 
Coventry, in the year 1779. He subsequently worked as a 
journeyman at Birmingham, and, on his arrival in London, at 
the office now Hansard's. He commenced business on his 
own account in a small way in Fetter Lane about 1790, but a 
few years afterwards we find him in Dean Street in the same 
neighbourhood — the growth of business probably necessitating 
the removal. Early in this century he had another small 

establishment in Leather Lane, which he kept going at the 
same time — a sure sign that he was prosperous. Still advancing, 
we find him removed a few years later to more commodious 
premises in Goswell Road. In 18 10 he started at Chiswick, 
taking the " High House " on the Mall. This mansion was 
used both as a residence and a printing office. From thence 
he removed to " College House " in 1818. This house was in 
the possession of the firm till 1852, though the Tooks Court 
business was instituted in 1828, and ran concurrently with that 
at Chiswick — an interval of three years only excepted, when the 
lease fell out (1849 to 1852). College House may be considered 
as the original Chiswick Press. According to Faulkner's " His- 
tory of Chiswick," the building was of great extent and faced 

the river. It consisted of two stories, the walls being of great 
thickness, and in many parts composed of solid stone — appa- 
rently having been constructed many ages (sic) previously. It 
was only in recent years that this house has been pulled down, 
the site being now covered by modern villa residences. Many 
of the works which emanated from the Chiswick Press during 
the early part of this century are good specimens of bookwork, 
Mr. Whittingham being especially famous for his treatment of 
woodcuts in printing — so much so, that the artist-engraver 
Bewick was delighted at the manner in which they were printed. 
Such an expression from him must have been well earned. It 
is a tradition of the establishment that Mr. ^\^littingham was 
the first printer who introduced and obtained such results from 
the system of overlaying cuts in printing. High opinions were 
held of his artistic treatment of woodcuts. 

'ILLIAM LONGMAN, who died in August, 1877, 
was the third son of Mr. Thomas Norton Longman, 
the third Thomas Longman who presided over the 
destinies of the celebrated pubhshing house in 
Paternoster Row. At an early age he entered his 
father's business, and in 1839 he was made a partner in the firm, 
and after Mr. T. N. Longman's death, in 1842, the chief direction 
of affairs passed into the hands of William Longman and his elder 
brother, Mr. Thomas Longman, who had been a partner since 
1832. The eight-and-thirty years during which the deceased gen- 
tlemen had a share in the firm were marked by several publications 
memorable in English literature. Indeed, the year in which the 
two brothers succeeded to the control of the business was that of 

the production of the " Lays of Ancient Rome," the first of the great 
" hits " which made Macaulay such a hero in the eyes of booksellers. 
His "Essays" from the Edinburgh, the first two volumes of the 
History, and, above all, the second two issued on December 17th, 
1855, which produced the celebrated cheque for ^20,000, were all 
of them events of magnitude in the annals of the trade, only to be 
rivalled, if rivalled at all, by the Waverley novels in former days 
and Victor Hugo's books at the present time. Many other notable 
successes have attended the proceedings of the house in later 
times. Colenso's book on the Pentateuch, "The Greville Memoirs," 
" Lothair," and several other publications have achieved wide circu- 
lations ; while ventures of a different sort, such as Ure's Dictionary, 
have a steady and constant sale that makes them valuable properties. 
The acquisition of Mr. Parker's stock and business connection, in 
1863, made the house publishers for many writers of note who had 

hitherto issued their books from the West Strand, such as Mr. Mill, 
Mr. Froude, and the late Sir Cornewall Lewis. To conclude this 
brief notice of the events of Mr. Longman's business career, we may 
mention " The Travellers' Library," one of the best collections of 
cheap literature we have had. Mr. Longman did not, however, 
confine himself to publishing for other people. He was himself an 
author, and we owe to him the excellent " Lectures on the History 
of England" down to the reign of Edward the Third, and afterwards 
an elaborate life of that monarch, which would be a credit to a 
writer who could devote his whole time to historical research, and 
was, therefore, still more honourable to one who had such heavy 
calls on his time. Mr. Longman's historical and lusthetic tastes 
also led him to take an active interest in the proposed decoration of 
St. Paul's. He not only served on the committee appointed for 
that purpose, but he also wrote a monograph on " The Three 
Cathedrals dedicated to St. Paul, in London." Mr. Longman was 
fond of travelling. 

[ 6 ] 

Old Style Bourgeois. 

[ 7 ] 

Old Style Brevier. 

HARLES EDWARD MUDIE, who died in October, 1890, 
was the creator of the system of lending libraries — a system 
peculiarly British, which has taken no real hold on the Con- 
tinent or in the United States — was born in 1818 in Cheyne 
Walk, Chelsea, where his father, a stationer and newsvendor, 
then kept a little shop, and was in the habit of lending out a small stock of 
books at a penny a volume. At the age of 22 young Mudie commenced 
business for himself in Upper King Street, Bloomsbury — now Southampton 
Row — and for a little time he carried it on much in the fashion that his 
father managed his trade ; but he soon formed the idea of starting a sub- 
scription library, and as he was careful to procure early copies of all new 
works, he rapidly attracted subscribers. In these days he also ventured on 
publishing. He became acquainted with Emerson, and he issued the first 
English edition of Mr. Lowell's poems ; but his librarj' became so im- 

portant that he was soon forced to give it his entire attention. In 1852 
Mr. Mudie's business had outgrown his premises in Upper King Street, 
and he removed to New Oxford Street. It was about this time that he 
commenced to advertise extensively, and to order large quantities of the 
most popular of new books. He took, for instance, over 2,000 copies of 
vols. iii. and iv. of Macaulay's "History of England," and 2,000 copies 
of Livingstone's " Travels," numbers till that time never ventured on by 
any lending library. His business rapidly grew, and he acquired other 
houses in New Oxford Street and Museum Street, until in i860 he opened 
the large hall which forms a conspicuous part of the present premises. He 
also established branches in the City and in Birmingham and Manchester. 
All this showed Mr. Mudie's power of organization. His success, of course, 
provoked opposition ; the old-fashioned libraries in the West End were 
stirred into activity when they found their business deserting them, and 
some of them were formed into a company under the title of " The English 
and Foreign Library," but without affecting their rival's success. The large 

expansion of his undertaking was, however, more than his capital sufficed to 
meet, and in 1864 he turned over his library to a company, in which he held 
half the shares and retained the management. Since then it has enjoyed a 
career of unbroken prosperity. Mr. Mudie was not merely a good organizer 
and a man of business, but he was a man of considerable refinement, taste, 
and poetic feeling, as his charming volume of " Stray Leaves," issued in 
1873, proved — a volume which hardly received the welcome it deserved. 
He was also an eminently charitable and pious man, labouring in the slums 
of Westminster, and preaching on Sundays at a small chapel. His gene- 
rosity and kindliness were not confined to any sect or party. He was poor 
in his early days, but when he attained wealth he was a liberal giver, a 
warm friend, and a hospitable host. The death, in 1879, of his elder son, 
a young man of singular promise, of whom a memoir (by one of his sisters) 
was privately printed, was a great blow to Mr. Mudie, who never quite 
recovered his loss. He gradually withdrew from business, and the manage- 
ment of the library has been for some years entirely in the hands of his 
younger son, Mr. Arthur Mudie. 

ENRY STEVENS, born at Barnet, in Vermont, U.S., on the 
24th August, 1819, died April 30th, 1886, bookseller, antiquary, 
and bibliographer, was the son of Henry Stevens, the first Presi- 
dent of the Vermont Historical Society. He was first sent to the 
school of his native village in the heart of the Green Mountain. 
In after life he used usually to place after his name the initials G.M.B., being 
short for Green Mountain Boy, from the circumstance of the first regiment raised 
in Vermont during the War of Independence being called the ' ' Green Mountain 
Boys." In 1836 he went to an academy at a place called Lyndon. Thence he 
went to another academy, and afterwards to Middleburg College. For some 
time he acted as schoolmaster. At another time he filled the office of clerk in 
the Treasury Department at Washington. From 1841 to 1843 he studied at 
Yale College, where he took the degree of B.A., and afterwards of M.A. All 
this time young Stevens was devoting his attention to the historical relations 
between the States and the mother country. He also became acquainted with 

the principal persons engaged in making collections both of MSS. and printed 
books relating to historical and genealogical subjects, and with their encourage- 
ment and support he resolved to make a trip to England. In 1845 he came to 
London with good recommendations, made the acquaintance of the principal 
booksellers, and one day " drifted " into the British Museum (as he was fond of 
saying), with an introduction from Thomas Rodd to Mr. Winter Jones and 
Mr. Thomas Watts, then Assistants in the library. At the same time he 
brought with him an introduction from Mr. Jared Sparks to Panizzi himself, the 
head of the library. The connection between the British Museum and Stevens 
never ceased from that time until the death of the latter. It had been ascer- 
tained that the Museum was in 1845 woefully deficient in modern American 
books — a deficiency which Mr. Panizzi, under the advice of Mr. Watts, set him- 
self to rectify. Mr. Stevens came at the nick of time to aid them in filling up 
these deficiencies, the result being that the British Museum now contains a 
more extensive hbrary of American books than any single library in the United 
States. Not only so, but Mr. Stevens, in the course of his inquiries for rare 
books — he having now turned bookseller — introduced from time to time to the 

Museum many rare books at moderate prices, which would at present fetch 
fifty times the amount paid for them. His range of knowledge continually 
increased. In fact, he became an experienced bibliographer. Two great 
subjects principally engaged his attention — the early editions of the English 
Bible, and early voyages and travels, especially those relating to America. In 
both of these branches he became a high authority, and the more his reputation 
increased in this country the more it extended in America. He was the trusted 
agent of numerous rich collectors in the States, especially of Mr. Lenox, of New 
York, whose library he may be said to have formed, consisting of the rarest 
book treasures anywhere to be found in the world, which library Mr. Lenox be- 
queathed, with high generosity, to the people of his native city. Mr. .Stevens, 
while thus engaged in a bookselling capacity, never forgot his position as a 
literary man. He was continually putting forth some brochure or another 
on bibliographical subjects. From time to time he was a contributor to the 
"Athenaeum." He formed a large collection of documents relating to Franklin, 
which was very properly purchased by the American Government. In 1852 
Mr. Stevens was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. In 1877 he was 
conspicuous as a member of the committee for promoting the Caxton Exhibi- 
tion, and joined with Mr. Blades, Lord Charles Bruce, and others in cataloguing 
the various exhibits, Stevens taking the Department of Bibles. In performing 
this task he was very successful. 

[ 8 ] 

Old Style Minion. 

[ 9 ] 

Old Style Nonpareil. 

•11E0RGE ROUTLEDGE, a native of Brampton in Cumberland, where 
he was born September 23rd, 1812, served his apprenticeship with 
Charles Thurnham, a well-known bookseller in Carlisle. When his 
apprenticeship was at an end Routledge came to London, and found 
employment in 1833 in the house of Messrs. Baldwin and Cradock, 
of Paternoster Row. Messrs. Baldwin and Cradock subsequently 
failed, and Mr. Routledge, with characteristic energy, started in business for himself 
as a retail bookseller in Ryder's Court. He began in a very small way, his only 
assistant being his brother-in-law, Mr. W. H. Warne, then a lad of fifteen, and for four 
years he was glad to supplement his income by holding a situation in the Tithe Office. 
He managed to make some money by stationery business in connection with the office, 
and in 1843 he felt strong enough to start as a publisher in Soho Square, his main dealings 
before this having been in "remainders," and his one solitary publication a failure. But 
in Soho Square he began reprinting the Biblical commentaries of an American divine 
named Barnes, and had the sagacity to engage the late Dr. Cumming, then rising into 
popularity, to edit them. The volumes had an enormous sale, though now they have 
totally fallen into oblivion. In 1848 Routledge took his brother-in-law, Mr. \V. H. 

Warne, into partnership, and in the same year he commenced that career as a publisher 
of cheap literature which has given his name a permanent place in the annals of English 
bookselling, by issuing the first volume of " The Railway Library," which was ' The 
Pilot' of Cooper, sold at a shilling. The circulation of " The Railway Library" was very 
extensive, and it had many imitators. ' The Romance of War ' was a great hit, and 
' Uncle Tom's Cabin," ' The White Slave,' 'The Wide, Wide World,' and ' Queechy,' 
brought in large returns. Before ' Uncle Tom's Cabin' appeared, in the j-ear 1851, 
Routledge 's other brother-in-law, Mr. Frederick Warne, had become a partner, and in 
1852 the firm had removed to Farringdon Street. In 1853 Mr. Routledge made another 
distinct step in advance as a purveyor of cheap literature of a high class by making the 
contract with Sir Bulwer Lytton to include his novels in " The Railway Librarj'." The 
terms, ;{^20,ooo for ten years, were considered enormous, and even the hardy publisher at 
one time thought he had given too much. But the venture proved profitable in the end, 
and, what is more, it established the reputation of the firm on a permanent basis. We 
need not dwell on Mr. Routledge 's other enterprises — on the masterly edition of Shake- 
speare by Howard Staunton, with illustrations by Sir John Gilbert, or enterprises of 
recent date like " The Universal Library." We may, however, notice that as eairly as 
1854 he set the example — since largely followed by British publishers — of establishing a 
branch of his business in New York. In 1858 the firm of George Routledge & Co. took 

the style of Routledge, Wames & Routledge, Mr. R. W. Routledge being admitted as a 
partner. In May, 1859, William Warne died, and a few years later Mr. F. Warne left 
the firm to become the publisher of the " Chandos Classics" and other books of merit. 
Mr. E. Routledge now became a partner, and the style was assumed of George Routledge 
and Sons. In his later years George Routledge lived a good deal in Cumberland, where he 
bought land and was made a Justice of the Peace and a Deputy-Lieutenant, serving as 
High Sheriff in 1S82-3 ; but he did not retire from business till the end of 1887, and in the 
following January the general esteem felt for him by the trade found expression in a 
dinner given in his honour, which was largely attended. Mr. Routledge was bluff and 
plain-spoken, but he made no enemies, for he was generous and kindly, thoroughly fair 
and upright in his dealings, and ever ready to give help when help was needed. By energy 
and perseverance he overcame great difficulties and attained striking success. As a pub- 
lisher of cheap literature he did signal service to the public. On January 12, 1888, a large 
representative company of members of the book trade assembled at dinner at the Albion 
to congratulate Mr. Routledge upon his success and eminence as a publisher for over fifty 
years. Mr. Routledge then sketched in most interesting words the progress of the house, 
and, in concluding his speech in reply to the toast of the evening, said : ' Now, gentlemen, 
I have brought my remarks to a close, and have to thank you for the attention with which 
you have listened to me. When a man talks about his own life he is apt to be somewhat 
discursive, and to exhaust the patience of those whom he addresses. Your kindness to 
me touches me deeply ; if your object in entertaining me was to give me pleasure, I can 
assure you you have more than succeeded. I give you my most earnest thanks for the 
courtesy, kindness, and support which I have received from you and J'oixr predecessors 
during the past fifty years.' 

, ENRY BRADSHAW.— By his death, in February, 1886, Cambridge lost one of 
the rarest of her scliolars, Europe her first scientific bibliographer, and a narrower 
circle of personal friends one of the truest and purest characters. To many Cam- 
bridge can never mean again what it has meant in the past ; the centre of scholarly 
influence, the source of inspiration for earnest work and genuine research, has 
been taken from amongst us. We have the memory of his aims and of his 
method, but the master is no more. Two classes of men have ever exercised a great influence over 
their fellows, the one by their writings, the other by the strength of their personal character. It is to the 
latter class that Henry Bradshaw essentially belonged. Probably no one for the last two decades has 
exercised such an invigorating influence, not only on the successive generations of Cambridge men, but 
on university and college politics. His ideal of college life and of university work was of the truest 
kind ; it was the idea] of an Erasmus, of the perfect scholar. Many who knew him, more especially from 
the literary side, would, perhaps, have been surprised to see the earnestness and depth of feeling with 
which he would enter upon the discussion of social and economic problems, ever confessing himself a 
novice in such matters, and yet ever suggesting new issues and demolishing half-truths and individual 
prejudices. He was a scholar who felt for the multitude of men outside his study ; his sympathies had 
indeed been " widened by the very variousness of men's character." Turning from his influence on 
university life and thought to his more special function of librarian, we find that here again he set before 
himself an ideal, and maintained it. " Why will not Bradshaw write? " many have asked. The answer 
lies partly in the thoroughness with which he felt it needful to approach every question, but chiefly in 

his definition of what a librarian should be. " A librarian," he has often said, " should know so much of 
the contents of manuscripts and books that he can recognize what will help others in their researches ; 
he has not to study for himself." It is true that the Cambridge Librarian very frequently knew more of 
his subject than the English and continental scholars who came to Cambridge to be helped in their 
researches. Yet he was content to put his knowledge, his discoveries, into their books. His stores 
were ever open to all whom he thought in the least capable of appreciating them. The " results of 
several years' work " were placed at the stranger's disposal, and were often the most scholarly portion 
of the resultant volume. Few who have acquaintance with works on mediaeval literature can have failed 
to note the cordial thanks of many a scholar for the invaluable assistance of Henry Bradshaw. His 
rediscovery of the Moreland MSS. and his dating of the Vaudois New Testament manuscripts were, 
like many other of his discoveries, first communicated to the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, yet they 
will probably reach future scholars through Montet's " Histoire Litt^raire des Vaudois." His discovery 
of the fragments of Hinrek van Alkmer's, " Reinke de Vos," and so the proof that the long-admired 
Low German version was a very close reproduction of a Dutch original, is referred to by Zarncke and 
Schroder. Much of his Celtic research will be found in the publications of Mr. Whitley Stokes or 
M. J. Loth, or still more recently in the " open letter " Hibernensis addressed to Professor 
Wasserschleben. His researches in Dutch bibliography will be found in " Memoranda," Nos. 2 and 3, 
as well as in Professor Conway's work on Dutch woodcuts. Various papers on English, Dutch, and 
German bibliography will be found in the " Proceedings " of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society and in 
other numbers of the " Memoranda." To these we must add his Chaucer studies, his researches in Irish 
bibliography, and his lists of early printed service books. Some portion of the material he collected 
and annotated on these subjects has appeared with due acknowledgment in the works of other scholars ; 
much of incalculable value still exists in manuscript only. Those to whom he has lent or shown his lists 

of books due to the early presses, his copies of early printed fragments with typographical and biblio- 
graphical comment, will, indeed, have some idea of the wealth of unpublished material that he has left. 
We cannot but express our deep conviction that it is the first duty of his university, his college, and his 
friends to collect and publish not only his scattered printed papers, but such of his manuscript notes as 
are in any way available for publication. Surely men imbued by his spirit, acquainted with his method 
and the bent of his studies, might be found to undertake this labour of love. We have said enough to 
show how closely Henry Bradshaw adhered to his ideal of the librarian. His life was spent in the service of 
others. His ideal of his profession became tlie fundamental note of his moral character. The following 
lines of his address to the Library Association clearly bring out not only his theory, but his practice : — 
*' It is this constant intercourse between the genuine student and the man who supplies his wants which 
forms such a humanizing training to the librarian and the bookseller alike, when it is not primarily the 
market value of the boolc which is wanted (however necessary this knowledge may be), but the intrinsic 
value and quality and contents of the book. The librarian under these circumstances is one whose life 
is wholly devoted to the service of his fellow men, and the more it is so, the more, most assuredly, will 
he find himself appreciated." — P. 9. The address from whicli we have quoted the above lines was to 
some extent an epoch in his life. The Library Association met at Cambridge in 1882, and Henry 
Bradshaw was president. Somewhat retiring in his nature, never taking part in anything of a public 
character, but exercising his influence on individual men, he was at first doubtful how he could fulfil the 
duties of president. The sympathy of the members of the Association, the courtesy and scholarly 
feeling of many of his co-librarians, filled him with delight, and raised in him new conceptions of the 
actualcondition of his own profession. But we cannot conclude this notice without remarking on the 
singular fascination of his personal character. The most philistine spirit in his presence seemed to tone 
down and catch some of his quiet enthusiasm for the patient investigation of truth. Ever ready to help 
the most humble aspirant to knowledge, even the freshman with his foot on the first rung only of the 
ladder of scholarship, provided he looked upwards, Bradshaw was yet intolerant, not of ignorance, but 
of the show of knowledge, of pseudo-scholarship, or, indeed, of superficiality in any of its innumerable 
forms. A playful touch would remind his friends that they were talking where they did not know ; a 
more brusque treatment would bring home to the shallow the need for more thorough study. Yet there 
was in him, to use his own words of a friend, such " a fund of strong gentleness," so obvious and so all- 
pervading, that he never hurt tlie feelings of his auditor as another might have done. 

[ lo ] 

Old Style Pearl. 

[ II ] 

Modern Great Primer. 

TIER, who died De- 
cember 6, 1891, was 
both pubhsher and author. He 
was the representative in England 
of the J. W. Lovell Company, New 
York, and a managing director of 
Heinemann andBalestier, the rivals 

of Baron Tauchnitz at Leipzig. He 
was also the collaborator of Mr. 
Kipling in the serial story, ''The 
Naulahka," published in the "Cen- 
tury Magazine," and the author of 
another novel, "Benefits Forgot." 
Before coming to England he had 
published two or more novels in 

America. He held a position there 
of some mark. His circle Avas a 
wide one among English authors, 
who held both his literary talents 
and his business capacity in very 
high esteem. He left a consider- 
able body of unpublished writings 
on various subjects. 

OBERT COOKE was the son of 
the Rev. Wilham Cooke, Vicar 
of Bromyard, and was the brother 
of Mr. iv. H. Cooke, Q.C. He 
was born in 1816 at Bromyard, and in 1830 
was apprenticed to Messrs. Longman. He 
remembered seeing Walter Scott in Pater- 
noster Row when he was passing through 
London in the autumn of 1831, before he 

started on his voyage to the Mediterranean. 
In 1837 Mr. John Murray the second, who 
was a brother-in-law of his father, took him 
into his business, and he soon became well 
known to, and highly esteemed by, the dis- 
tino^uished men of letters who used to resort 
to Albemarle Street — Lockhart, Croker, Sir 
John Barrow, George Borrow, and others. 
With George Borrow he became a prime 
favourite, and accompanied him on some of 

the rambles chronicled in " Romany Rye " 
and " Wild Wales." Mr. Cooke's health had 
been delicate for some years, but his last 
illness was short. Mr. Cooke enjoyed a 
high reputation in the trade for sagacity 
and experience, and few names were more 
familiar to booksellers, or more respected by 
them, than his. His geniality, tact, and 
genuine kindness endeared him to all who 
came in contact with him. 

[ 12 ] 

Modern English. 

[ 13 ] 

Modern Pica. 


From the time he took part in his 
father's business he had always adhered 
to the maxim that what a man does 
himself is better done than what he hires others to 
do for him, and until he entered Parliament there 
was no one who took so busy a share in the conduct 
of his great business as he himself. Indeed, till poli- 
tics engrossed his attention, he was the life and soul 
of his business. For years he used to work behind 

the counter, and rise early that he might himself see 
to the despatch of the morning papers. The change 
effected by railways was just beginning to affect the 
trade when he was called in to help his father. 
The acquisition of the bookstalls of the London and 
North- Western Railway in 1 849 produced a gigan- 
tic increase in the dimensions of his operations, and 
Mr. Smith invited his old schoolfellow at Tavistock, 
Mr. Lethbridge, to abandon the teaching of mathe- 
matics for the selling of newspapers, and by this 
judicious choice he acquired a partner of unusual 

abilities and powers of organization. Some years 
later the well-known building in the Strand was 
opened ; to this a large and handsome addition, 
doubling its size, has been made, which, owing to 
his illness, Mr. Smith was never able to visit. In 
1860 the establishment of the circulating library 
marked another important advance ; and since then 
the business has grown greatly with the growth of 
the press. Mr. Smith, it need hardly be said, was 
a generous supporter of the charities connected with 
the bookselling and newsvending trades, and had 
held the office of vice-president. 

[OHN HEYWOOD was, in every sense of the 
word, a self-made man. His father was 
originally a hand-loom weaver, but ulti- 
mately quitted this work, and after serving 
for a time with his brother, the present Alderman Abel 
Hey wood, as a paper- ruler, he opened a small shop in 
Deansgate in 1842 for the sale of periodicals and news- 
papers. John Heywood, at that time thirteen years of 
age, was serving as errand-boy in a solicitor's office, but 
he now joined his father at the shop. Thus was laid the 
foundation of that bookselling and stationery business 

which was afterwards destined to become famous. In 
1859, the premises being found unequal to the increasing 
trade, a removal was made to the other side of the street. 
Further extensions soon followed, and in 1866 it was 
found necessary to build a large six-story factory in the 
rear of the existing buildings. Mr. John Heywood, 
senior, died in 1864, and the entire control of the business 
then devolved upon his son. By this time an extensive 
printing trade had been established in connection with 
the firm, and this led to the erection in the Hulme Hall 
Lane of the factory so widely known as the Excelsior 
Printing Works. Another branch that arose from the 

energy and ability displayed by Mr. John Heywood in 
extending and developing the business was the church 
and school furniture manufactory in Turner Street, 
Cornbrook. The widening of Deansgate in 1877-8 led to 
the demolition of Heywood's shop, and the present large 
stationery warehouse in Eidgefield, covering a ground 
space of two and a half acres, was built. The adjoining 
premises in Deansgate were added soon after, and the 
trade carried on in thd immense establishment in which 
we now find it. In this quick but steady growth the 
energy and business capacity of Mr. Heywood were very 
conspicuous. He was remarkable for his administrative 
skill, as the growth of the vast and varied establishment 
over which he presided shows. 

[ 14 ] 

Modern Small Pica. 

[ 15 ] 

Modern Long Primer. 

^gEOEGE LOCK, born at Dorchester, in February, 
^^ 1832, was a member of an old Dorsetshire family. 
He was one of the original founders of the pub- 
lishing house of Ward & Lock, which came into 
existence thirty-seven years ago. Educated at a private school 
at Southampton, Mr. Lock was articled to the late Mr. Squarey, 
an agricultural and general chemist at Salisbury, and served 
his time with him. In 1854 he came to London, and was 
introduced by his cousin, Mr. Thomas Dixon Galpin (then in 
partnership with Mr. George Petter as Petter and Galpin) , to 
Mr. E. Ward, who, after an experience of ten years in the 
house of Henry G. Bohn, had been for some years managing 

the book business of Ingram, Cooke & Co., the " National 
Illustrated Library," and was about to commence business as 
a publisher on his own account. The two entered into part- 
nership as Ward & Lock, in 1854, at 158, Elect Street, 
premises occupied some years before by the late Mr. David 
Nutt. The two partners both of them " travelled," and they 
built up a considerable connection throughout the country, 
establishing a high character for activity, enterprise, and 
sound judgment. There was from the first a recognition of 
the increased educational requirements of the age and of the 
growth of popular literature, and the success of the firm was 
based on the publication of good books at low prices. Mr. 
Lock and his partner subsequently entered into business re- 
lations with Mr. S. O. Beeton, whose publications they pur- 
chased and continued, thus becoming the proprietors of 
Beeton's Boy's Magazine and annuals, the ' Household Man- 
agement ' of Mrs. Beeton, and other works. After some years 
Mr. Charles Tyler, a brother of Mr. Alderman Tyler, joined 
the firm, which was then known as Ward, Lock and Tyler, 
and removed from Fleet Street to the premises in Amen 
Corner formerly occupied by Orr & Co. In due time the 
oj^erations of the house were widened by the purchase of the 
business of the late Edward Moxon, and afterwards by the 
acquisition of that of William Tegg & Co. After the retire- 
ment of Mr. Charles Tyler, Mr. James Bowden and Mr. J. H. 
Lock, the brother of Mr. George Lock, both of whom had 
worked in the firm for many years, became partners, and the 
style was altered to Ward, Lock & Co. 

^OBEET B. SEELEY was born in Ave Maria Lane on 
January 7th, 1798, and died June, 1886. His father, 
Leonard B. Seeley (born in 176G), was the son of a 
bookseller and publisher of Buckingham. Leonard 
came to London about 1785, and, establishing himself in Ave Maria 
Lane, became the chief publisher and bookseller of the Evangelical 
party. He removed in 1808 to 169, Fleet Street, and in 1826 
handed over the publishing part of his business to his son Eobert, 
who, in partnership with the late Mr. Burnside, opened a shop in 
Crane Court, removing some time afterwards to 172, Fleet Street, 
and eventually to 54, Fleet Street. Throughout his business life he 
maintained his connection with the religious party with which his 
father was identified, and had a highly prosperous career. But, 

besides attending to his publishing, he found time to contri- 
bute largely to newspapers and magazines as well as for indepen- 
dent authorship. For a brief period he wrote "leaders" in the 
" Times," and afterwards in the " Morning Herald." He was one 
of the contributors to the " Kecord " from its foundation, and to 
the " Morning Advertiser " under the editorship of Mr. Grant. He 
also wrote some articles in '* Eraser" in its palmy days. Of his 
books we may mention " Essays on the Church by a Layman," 
which went through several editions. This was followed by 
" Essays on Eomanism," " Perils of the Nation," and " The 
Greatest of the Plantagenets : a Study of the Life and Eeign of 
Edward L" His last volume, published in his eighty-seventh year 
was a little work called " England's Training : a Brief Sketch of 
the Eeligious History of England." He also took an active 
part in political matters, and was in the thick of the civic con- 

test when Alderman Harmer was excluded from the Mayoralty. 
Nor should Mr. Seeley's exertions in the cause of philanthropy 
be forgotten. He was a friend of Mr. M. T. Sadler, whose life he 
wrote, and he was associated with Lord Ashley in his efforts 
to carry the Ten Hours Bill. He was one of the founders of 
the Church Pastoral Aid Society and the Society for Improving 
the Dwellings of the Labouring Classes. Mr. Seeley took great 
pains with the "get-up " of the books he published. He retired 
Irom business in 1857, but continued to show an active interest 
in the affairs of the firm, and aid it with his advice and experi- 
ence, till within a short time of his death. He suffered frona 
no malady but old age, and passed away quietly in his sleep. He 
has left four sons and six daughters. The eldest son is at the bar, 
the second and fourth carry on the publishing business (now 
installed in handsome premises in Essex Street), and the third 
is a well-known Professor of Plistory at Cambridge. 

[ i6 ] 

Modern Bourgeois. 

[ 17 ] 

Modern Brevier. 

|[,^7^(^0HN MURRAY died in March, 1892. His genuine kind- 
^ liness of heart, liis unaftected modesty, his perfect upright- 
^t ness, his singular generosity, attracted every one who 
came in contact mth him. His conversation was ex- 
tremely interesting, for he liad during his long life entertained intimate 
relations %vitli many of the most distinguished men of his time, and the 
quantities of portraits and relics he possessed made a visit to Albemarle 
Street or Wimbledon a thing to be looked forward to and remembered. 
It was startling to be told that " down that staircase I have seen Scott 
and BjTon stmnping arm in arm " ; it seemed so difficult to believe 
that the hale old gentleman, keenly alive to all that was going on, 
could remember events of 1815 and 1816. But Mr, Murray, born 
before the " Quarterly," was early observant, and even as a child he 
understood that it was no ordinary race of mortals who came to v-isit 

the dva^ of publishers. Of all the famous men who gathered round 
his father Mr. Murray spoke highly except of Rogers. Rogers he 
confessed he did not like, and this judgment on the part of one so 
charitable by nature should be borne in mind when attempts are made 
to rehabilitate Rogers. The life of a publisher is to a considerable 
extent a history of his publications, as the record of his battles forms 
a large part of the biography of a general. Mr. Murray, as the public 
have lately been made aware, wTote the first volumes of the series of 
handbooks which is known wherever English tourists travel. He 
also projected and brought out " The Home and Colonial Librarj'," 
" Murray's Railway Reading," and that delightful series liis " British 
Classics." He published in conjunction with Messrs. Taylor, Walton 
and Maberley Dr. Smith's classical dictionaries. Of Dr. Smith's 
popular schoolbooks he was the sole publisher, and also of the valuable 
dictionaries of the Bible, of Christian antiquities, and of Christian 
biography. He brought out the histories of Grote, MUman, and Lord 

]\Iahon ; Stanley's numerous works ; the travels of Li\'ingstone, Du 
Chaillu, McClintock, and Sir Joseph Hooker ; Col. Yule's etUtion of 
Marco Polo ; the archaeological works of Leake ; Sir H. Layard's 
narrative of his discoveries at Nineveh ; Dennis's " Cities of Etraria"; 
many of Mr. Gladstone's books, including his " Manual of Family 
Prayers " ; the scientific treatises of Darwin and Murchison ; the 
writings on architecture of Fergusson, Scott, and Street ; the histories 
of painting of Crowe and Cavalcaselle, and the disquisitions of Waagen 
and Leslie ; the popular volumes of Dr. Smiles ; and the "Speaker's 
Commentary." In fact, a large part of the best literature of this 
country during the last fifty years has appeared with Ms imprint ; 
and it may be said that every one for whom he published became his 
friend. Mr. Murray's illness was so severe that it left little hope of 
his recovery ; however, till a sudden change for the worse took place, 
it was not supposed that the end would come so quickly. He will 
not be soon forgotten, for he was essentially a good man, who in all 
the affaiis of life did what he believed to be right without thought of 
the gain or loss to himself. 

OHN WINTER JONES was the son of Mr. J. Winter Jones, 
who for some years edited the "Naval Chronicle" and "Euro- 
pean Magazine. " He was born at Lambeth in 1805, and received 
a classical education at St. Paul's School. His father originally 
destined him for a legal career ; but the well-known literary 
tastes of his parent probably exercised a more powerfvil influence over his mind 
than the preliminary technicalities of a Chancery law education. In Ajjril, 1837, 
Mr. Jones succeeded in obtaining an appointment to the Library of the British 
Museum as an assistant, and thus he was a contemporary of Dr. Samuel 
Birch, Keeper of the Oriental Antiquities, who entered that institution 
one year before him, and of Mr. Bond and Mr. BuUen. Of the two latter 
gentlemen, the one succeeded him in the post of Principal Librarian and 
Secretary ; the other, after two intervening offices, in the position of Keeper 
of the Printed Books. J/Ir. Jones from his first introduction to our national 
library was employed, with several other assistants, upon the preparation of 

the new Alphabetical Catalogue of Authors. When Mr. Baber resigned and 
Mr. Panizzi succeeded him as Keeper of the Printed Books, Mr. Jones assisted 
considerably in the arrangements rendered necessary in connection witli the 
removal of the immense library from Montague House, and his co-operation 
was found indispensable in the preparation of the rules to be laid down for the 
guidance of those entrusted with the construction of the new catalogue. 
After occupying the position of Senior Assistant in the library for many years, 
Mr. Jones became Assistant Keeper on the death of Mr. Garnett in 1850. On 
Mr. Panizzi's promotion to the office of Principal Librarian in 185G Mr. 
Jones was appointed to succeed him. Mr. Panizzi retired in 18G6, and Mr. 
Jones became Principal Librarian on the 26th of June, an office whicli he held 
for twelve years, giving place to Jlr. Bond, who received the appointment in 
October, 1878. Mr. Jones's promotion, well earned as it was, was hailed with 
gladness by every one around him. He brought the same careful, conscien- 
tious, and painstaking persistency to his new duties that had long distinguished 
liim when he occupied a less exalted position ; and it is a matter of record 
that he laboured most unremittingly in carrying out the great work of per- 
fecting the national library and of keeping it in its proud and prominent 
position among the public libraries of the world. Mr. Robert Cowtan, a con- 
temporary of Mr. Jones, in his "Memories of the British Museum," published 
in 1872, speaking of the design and erection of the new reading room, says : 
" Everything was done vmder the vigilant eye of the originator [Mr. Panizzi], 
and I heard him once remark that every slielf, and peg, and pivot of the whole 
building was thought of and deteimined on in the wakeful hours of tlie night, 
before he communicated with any one on the subject. The man who, next to 
himself, took the greatest interest in the undertaking was Mr. Winter Jones, 
who was his constant companion and co-operator in the great scheme, from 
the day when the first rough sketch was put into his liands to the morning of 
the 1st of May [1857J, when the last workman wdtlidrew, and the room was 
seen in all its freshness and beauty." In another place Mr. Cowtan refers to 
]\Ir. Jones as a kind and courteous cldef, who, while lie administered with 
even-handed justice the affairs of the Museum, would never be forgetful of the 
claims of the department wliere lie had spent all his previous official life, and 
the staff of which cherished towards him so m.uch respect and esteem. Mr. 
Jones worked as an author and arcluuologist very assiduously during his long 
life. In 1852 he edited for the Hakhiyt Society a work entitled "Divers 
Voyages toucliing the Discovery of America and tlie Islands Adjacent, Col- 
lected and Published by Richard Hakluyt, prebendary of Bristol. " 

[ 18 ] 

Modern Minion. 

[ 19 ] 

Modern Nonpareil. 


■ ENRY G. BOIIN was bom in London on the 4th of January, 1706, 
and died in August, 1884. He claimed to be descended from a 
family of the name of Bohun, who, passed to the Continent in 
the reign of Mary, became possessed of estates at Weinheim, on 
tlie Rliine. Here they must again have changed their religion, for 
Mr. Bohn used to say that the estate was confiscated because his 
grandfather turned Lutheran. The father, John Henry Martin Bohn, who had 
served his apprenticeship in Germany, settled in England and carried on business 
as a bookbinder, first at 31, Frith Street, Soho, and afterwards at 17 and 18, 
Henrietta Street, Covent Garden. He was noted for his spring backs and a system 
of diamond graining on the sides of books bound in calf, and acquired a considerable 
connection. In 1814 he added to bookbinding a business in second-hand books, and 
from his eighteenth year young Bohn travelled abroad on his father's account. 
Napoleon had just signed the abdication of Fontainebleau, and the Continent was 
again accessible to English traders. Between 1814 and 1830 Bohn paid repeated 
visits to France, Holland, and Belgium as his father's buyer. He had even then an 
ambition to be a publisher, and as long ago as 1826, meeting Audubon at the house 

of Mr. Rathbone, at Liverpool, he had proposed to undertake the publication of the 
" Birds of America." The negotiation fell through. In 1831, having married a 
daughter of the late Mr. Simpkin, he started in business for himself, and he speedily 
became a second-hand bookseller on a more extensive scale than any of his competi- 
tors. He, besides, dealt largely in remainders— Brockedon's "Passes of the Alps," 
Pugin's books, Gilpin's " Tours," Thoresby's "Diary," &c. — and bought up a good 
many copyrights of some value, such as Roscoe's works and other works of the same 
kind. James, his second brother, also set up as a bookseller, and in 1841, when 
H. G. Bohn published his " Guinea Catalogue," there were three Bohns in the 
trade. His father died in 1843, and his stock was so considerable that the sale at 
various auction rooms lasted over forty days. The third brother, Mr. John Hutter 
Bohn, who had managed the paternal business after the secession of the elder sons, 
is in the service of Messrs. Sotheby, with whom he has been connected over thirty 
years. The publication of the " Guinea Catalogue " was considered a great feat at 
the time. A huge volume of nearly two thousand pages, representing the stock of 
a single bookseller, was something unprecedented, and greatly raised Bohn's repu- 
tation. About 1846 he began to turn his copyrights to account by issuing a series of 
reprints and translations, to which he gave the name of the " Standard Library." 
I'he books were clearly printed on good paper, and being issued at three shillings 
and sixpence each they had a large sale. It was one of the first attempts to supply 

good literature at so low a price. Tlie late Mr. Bogue issued a rival series, under the 
name of the " European Library " which, however, had not equal good fortune. The 
success of the "Standard Library" encouraged Bohn to issue other "Libraries," 
mostly at five shillings a volume, called " Tlie Scientific," " The Illustrated," " The 
Classical," " The Antiquarian," &c. These all met with a highly favourable recep- 
tion. After thus combining for over twenty years the business of a bookseller and 
a publisher, Bohn found himself in possession of a large fortune and made up his 
mmd to retire. He gradually got rid of his huge stock. Successive sales at Sotheby's 
disposed of the major part. In February, 1868, there was an auction which lasted 
twenty-four days, and brought £6,973 19«. Gd. In May, 1870, twenty days' sale 
produced £4,837 lis., and in July, 1872, six days' sale brought over £1,500. The 
whole amount was £13,333 Os. 6d. His " Libraries," which then amounted to more 
than six himdred volumes, he disposed of in 1864 to Messrs. Bell & Daldy, now 
Messrs. Bell & Sons, for the large sum of £35,000. The stock taken over amounted 
to nearly half a million of volumes. His enterprising successors have added 156 
■works to Bohn's 600, and are understood to have found their purchase a highly pro- 
fitable venture. The average annual sale exceeds 90,000 volumes. The principal 
copyrights of books not included in the "Libraries " were bought by Messrs. Chatto 
and Windus. Mr. Bohn, who for many years had lived over his shop in York Street, 
Covent Garden, henceforth resided entirely at Twickenham, where he devoted him- 
self to gardening, especially to roses, and buying china and pictures. But he was 
unable altogether to tear himself away from his old occupation. He still kept a 
warehouse in town, which curiously was in his father's old house in Henrietta Street. 

'HARLES WHITTINGIIAM, the nephew, was born at Mitcham, in Surrey, on 
October 30th, 1V95, and died April 21st, 1S76. He was apprenticed to his uncle 
at Chiswiek, through the Stationers' Company, and became a liveryman of the 
Company in 1818. About 1828 began his connection with that eminent biblio- 
grapher, William Pickering— a name revered in the annals of publishers and 
booksellers. These two men were continually in each other's society — ever 
plotting and scheming some new idea in printing and publishing. According to the late 
Mr. Henry Stevens, it was their custom to meet and discuss the merits and iioints of all contem- 
plated works. Books thus thought out, and with free scope given in their production, could not 
fail to be worthy of the time and study bestowed on them. It is to be regretted that nowadays 
greater care and consideration are not given to the making of books. In these days of steam and 
other innovations, a free hand is not always allowed the printer ; he is seldom allowed to make any 
suggestion, having to obey implicity the instructions of his employer, the publisher ; therefore he is 
not always to blame for the bad taste so frequently seen in the get-uij of modern books. It was 
during this period that the Chiswiek Press acquired such an unrivalled collection of ornamental 
borders, head and tail pieces, together with initial letters— a collection of original designs that no 
other printer in Europe could boast of either in number or excellence. Many of these were original 
and registered— some others adapted from the earliest and best printers of the Dutch and Italian 
schools. These designs were all engraved on wood, and the originals preserved for duplicating as 

reqtiired. The original woodcuts may perhaps some day form the nucleus of a museum similar to 
that of Plantin at Antwerp, for no other English firm is so rich in history or effects. Many of these 
ornaments were designed by Mr. Whittingham's daughter. It was in 1843 that the revival of old- 
style printing took place, in which method the Chis\vick Press has excelled so much— notwith- 
standing some other firms have attempted it at a later period. We quote from Mr. Talbot B. 
Reed's valuable book, "A History of Old English Letter-Foundries " (1887) : " In 1843 a revival of the 
Caslon old-style letter took place under the following circumstances, which, as they initiated a new 
fashion in the trade generally, call for reference here. In the year 1843, Mr. 'Whittingham, of the 
Chiswiek Press, waited upon Mr. Caslon to ask his aid in carrying out the then new idea of printing 
in appropriate type " The Diary of Lady Willoughby," a work of fiction, the period and diction of 
which were supposed to be of the reign of Charles I. The original matrices of the first William 
Caslon having been fortunately preserved, Mr. Caslon undertook to supply a small fount of Great 
Primer. So well was Mr. Whittingham satisfied with the result of his experiment, that he deter- 
mined on printing other volumes in the same style, and eventually he was supplied with the com- 
plete series of all the other founts. Then followed a demand for old faces, which has continued up 
to the present time." The book was immediately reprinted in a smaller size of tyi'e (pica). This 
edition has been erroneously considered to be the first printed in the old-style. All this occurred 
years before anyone else thought of taking up the new fashion, and to this day the Chiswiek Prets 
stiinds alone for its genuine old-style printing. It was in 1850, owing to the increased demand, that 
Messrs. Miller and Richard commenced cutting their admirable series of old-style faces— a charac- 
ter of type somewhat lighter in face than Caslon's. Since that date the use of that style of type has 
been almost universal for good bookwork. Mr. Whittingham had several founts of type cut espe- 
cially for him, the firm still holding the original punches and " strikes " or matrices, and the types 

are still in use. One of the special founts is a Caxton black letter, which is considered by experts 
as the nearest approach to what Caxton himself used. Another of these is a curious roman type 
somewhat after the style of Froben, an early printer of Basle, that is, the letters, in typefounders' 
language, are cut on their back. In addition to their own founts, Messrs. Caslon's old-face and 
Messrs. Miller and Richard's modernized old-style, they have a selection of French, Dutch, and 
Flemish tyi)es, which they have imported from time to time. AVith this unique collection of types 
tliey are placed in an almost unassailable position. The Chiswiek Press has long held a recognized 
position in this country, and the reputation abroad of its many productions has largely contributed 
to tlie high standard of English printing during the last three quarters of a century. Its books are 
as marked and distinct, perhaps, as those from the famous presses of the Alduses, the Stephenses, 
the Plantins, and the Elzevirs, or, in more recent times, of the presses of Baskerville in England, of 
I)i(lot in France, of Ibarra in Spain, of Franklin in America, or of Bodoni in Italy. The bio- 
graphical and bibliographical history of this press, therefore, if well done, will be an important 
acquisition to the recent history of printing and printcra in Enuland, as well as a valiialile contri- 
bution to the special bibliography of tliis i .luiitry. Fn.i]] is-ld till isis lie ranii-d on lli.^ I)usiue8s of 
both estaVjlishraents simultaneouslv ill rjcaiilmi :ind ChiKwirli, Imt cirly in is-iii, Ih'h Ic'isc having 
ex))ired, he was obliged to leave TooksC.iirt for lliin- y.-ars. liming' ( time, \,v ...ntiniicd the 
business wholly at Chiswiek ; liut ('lii«wiik filially proxnl In In' u iiiruii\ c niciit, bolli tn his custo- 
mers and to himself, that we find biiii, c;nlv in .laiiiKiry, I •, 1.1' i. .1 MiiL ill bis nlil in-iMiiises, 21, 
Tooks Court, which he had succeciUd in pur. liasiiij.' .mlnlil, \.,iil! ill his pirssis, liuiiitiin!, &c., 
where the Chiswiek Press has held its own to this ii;iy, (he i nil lii^hn n ,il ;iu(l;i|.liical record 
whereof will be most interesting. In IWifi, on rctiriiit; |i;nli:illy Ii.hh .i.livr ..liii.'-w.irk, Mr. 
Whittingham took into partncrsliip his iivcrscer, Mr. .I.iliii \\ ilkiiis, hIi.i lia.l bi'.'ii his first .-iiipren- 
tico. Mr. Wilkiiisdiud in November, l«(l!i, and flir chiswi.k 1'ivhs was .■..nihi.t.'.l hv Ch.arl.s ,rohn 

Whittingham and John Charles' two -.11'. ..f th.. t«.. pailn. .-., . I.iks in II -lahlish- 

ment, till the end of 1871. In Januai-y, 1.h7j, a i npl.' lai i n. i Im|. \.. . 1...11, .1 i,\ Mi W Ini 1 in,,'liam 
with his Bfin-in-law B. F. Stevens and .JoliM 1 hi I Williiili. 1 i., ,.hi,. . maiii .1 in the 

absence of the other two partners. This aiiaiu. m. ni, l.> nmhial .m, in.r 1 vaisanda 

half, was dissolved on the 7th of August, Ih/ii, iWr. Vi liiltiiiKhani lia\ uig .ii./.l in tliu juuvioua .\pril. 
The business is now carried on under the old name and style of Charles Wliittingham. 

[ 20 ] 

Modern Pearl. 


[ 21 ] 

Old Face Great Primer. 


the proprietor of 
" Lloyd's News," 
started in life with 
a comparatively slen- 
der education, but 
enormous energy and resource. At 

the age of sixteen he was already a 
publisher, and brought out " Lloyd's 
Stenography," a sixpenny handbook of 
his own compiling. He then began 
printing " Lloyd's Weekly Miscellany" 
and other papers. In 1842 he issued 
an unstamped penny illustrated paper, 
but the authorities at Somerset House 

interfered, and he had to submit to the 
stamp and charge twopence. This was 
the beginning of " Lloyd's Weekly 
London Newspaper," now usually styled 
" Lloyd's News." The illustrations 
were soon dropped, and the price raised 
to twopence halfpenny as the twopence 
did not pay. Afterwards Mr. Lloyd 
secured the aid of Douglas Jerrold. 

OBERT FARRAN, who died 
on the 13th December, 1890, 
was the son of Major Charles 
Farran, of the 14th Madras 
Infantry ; he was born in India 
on the 2 8 th January, 1829, and, 
coming to London at an early age, received his 
first training as a bookseller and publisher in 
the house of Messrs. W. H. Allen and Co., 

now of Waterloo Place, but at that time in 
Leadenhall Street. The training auspiciously 
begun was completed by several years of ex- 
perience with Messrs. Longman and Co., whom 
he left to join Mr. Griffith at the corner of St. 
Paul's Churchyard after the retirement of Mr. 
Grant in 1856. The high reputation of this 
old-established house for the excellence of its 
publications and stridl integrity was strengthened 
and enhanced by Mr. Farran, whose cautious 

judgment, business aptitude, and courteous 
kindliness won the confidence and esteem of all 
who were fortunate enough to know him. He 
took a keen and adlive interest in everything 
that concerned the welfare of the Booksellers' 
Provident Institution. He was buried on the 
17th of December at Norbiton Cemetery. 
He had not been actively engaged in business 
for nearly two years, and his retirement from 
the firm, owing to prolonged illness, was from 
the 30th of June, 1888. 

[ 22 ] 

Old Face En owlish. 

Old Face Pica. 

pBERT CHAMBERS, the highly es- 
teemed chief of the pubhshing house of 
Messrs. W. and R. Chambers, died 
March 23, 1888, in his 56th year. His 
father, Robert, the eminent author of '* Vestiges of 
the Natural History of Creation," " Ancient Sea 
Margins," etc., died in 1871 ; his uncle, William, 
died in 1883. Mr. Chambers entered upon adlive 
duties in the firm when he was but twenty-two years 
of age. One of the features of his early training 

consisted of his being educated in the various branches 
of the mechanical work of book produ6lion — thus 
the composing room, the machine room, the binders' 
room, and other departments were not unfamiliar to 
him ; and he also spent some time under the astute 
mercantile tuition of the diligent partner in the firm, 
Mr. William Inglis. Afterwards he assumed that 
intimate associateship with the editorial management 
of Chambers s Journal^ which endured until the time 
of his decease, and during which he made friends in 
all ranks of literary life. When Mr. James Payn 

resigned the editorship of the Journal in 1874, Mr. 
Robert Chambers took charge of the portfolio. His 
management showed that he was true to that faith in 
public taste and requirements which had guided the 
progress of his distinguished father and almost equally 
eminent uncle. In charafter Robert Chambers was a 
most lovable man ; he was amiable, courteous and 
considerate towards all with whom he came into con- 
tad, and his literary and business relations were in 
consequence free from many asperities which some- 
times jar in the course of work-a-day life. His tall, 
manly and handsome figure was well known. 

ILLIAM BLADES.— His name will always 
be identified with Caxton's. His earliest 
publication was devoted to Caxton, and his 
magnum opus was his " Life and Typography of 
Caxton," as careful and conscientious a piece of work as 
British bibliography has to boast of, which first appeared in 
i86i and 1863 in two quarto volumes, and again in one 
volume in 1877, on the occasion of the Caxton celebration. 
Next to this must rank his " Numismata Typographica," 
which was originally published in 1869, ^"^ was re-issued in 
an enlarged and improved shape in 1883. But the most 

popular of his works was undoubtedly *'The Enemies of 
Books," a pleasant little volume which ran through three 
editions. Of his reprints, beginning with Caxton's *'Gover- 
nayle of Helthe," issued more than thirty years ago, we need 
say no more than that they were executed with the thorough- 
ness and taste that distinguished his work. He was thorough 
in all he did, and his genuine modesty led him generally 
to confine himself stri6tly to matters in which he was 
thoroughly at home, and thus he avoided almost entirely the 
besetting sin of a self-educated man. It was very seldom 
that he ventured out of his range, and consequently biblio- 
graphers may use his books with confidence and security. 

From time to time contributions from Mr. Blades appeared in 
the "Athenaeum," and they were welcomed by all who cared 
about his favourite subjeils. He was very simple and un- 
afFedled, kindly and honest — a man who laboured at the history 
of printing not for honour or reward, but from pure love of 
the study. It will be long before we meet with another 
bibliographer as devoted and unpretentious. It is to be 
remembered, too, that he was not a rich man with ample 
leisure and command of a long purse, but a man of business 
who could only devote occasional spare hours to his favourite 
pursuit. Yet how completely he outstripped the amateurs ! 
We have few bibliographers among us, and still fewer 
printers in this commercial age know or care anything about 
the history of their craft, so that we can ill afford to lose 
Mr. William Blades, whose sudden death has been a blow. 

[ 24 ] 

Old Face Small Pica. 

[ 25 ] 

Old Face Lons; Primer. 

JOHN FRANCIS was born in July, i8i i, and died 
April, 1882. After having attended for a short 
time a dame's school in Bermondsey, he was placed 
at a middle class school in the same neighbourhood, 
and afterwards at a Nonconformist free school in 
Tooley Street. Through the instrumentality of the secretary of the 
Tooley Street school he was apprenticed to Messrs. Marlborough, 
then as now among the chief newspaper agents in London. When 
his apprenticeship was at an end, Mr. Francis answered an adver- 
tisement for a junior clerk, in the "Athenaeum," and inconsequence 
he entered, in August, 183 i, the office of that journal, which had 
some time before passed out of the hands of John Sterling, and 

was then edited by the late Mr. Dilke. Two months afterwards, 
such was the ability he had shown, he was appointed publisher 
of the journal. In 1831 it was still the habit of the majority of 
business people to live near their shops and offices ; the hours 
were long, the doors being opened very early in the morning, and 
not closing till late in the evening. So Francis went to live in 
Catherine Street, where the "Athenaeum" was then published, and 
a few years afterwards he removed with the journal to Wellington 
Street. In the arduous task of establishing the young paper on a 
sound footing he took his full share ; he firmly grasped the prin- 
ciple asserted by Mr. Dilke, that the first virtue of a journal is 
independence, and he speedily obtained the respeft and confidence 
both of publishers and the newspaper trade. Nor when the 

success of the " Athensum" was assured did his industry abate. 
He continued throughout a long and prosperous life as careful and 
adlive a man of business as when he first went to Catherine Street. 
During his apprenticeship at Marlborough's Francis had been 
struck by the heaviness of the taxation laid on the newspaper 
press, and when the success of the " Athenaeum " gave him leisure 
he turned his attention to the fiscal restriftions then in force, and 
became treasurer of the committee for obtaining the repeal of the 
advertisement duty. In securing the abolition of that tax, and 
subsequently of the compulsory stamp and the paper duty, he 
took an adlive share, addressing meetings in various parts of the 
country, and organizing deputations to wait on successive Chan- 
cellors of the Exchequer. On the repeal of the paper duty the 
price of the "Athensum" was, largely at his instigation, reduced 
from fourpence to threepence. 

SILLIAM SPOTTISWOODE.— Withm a few hours 
after the long life of the veteran ex-president of the Royal 
Society closed the ailual holder of the office passed away 
while still in the vigour of mature manhood. Mr. W. 
Spottiswoode's illness had from the first caused serious 
alarm ; still it was hoped that he would triumph over typhoid fever 
though complicated by congestion of the lungs. His strength had, 
however, been shaken by the severe accident he met with some months 
before, and he died June, 1883. There is little doubt that his indefatig- 
able attention to duties of various sorts had overtasked even his vigorous 
constitution. He combined with the studies of a physicist and a mathe- 
matician the supervision of a great mercantile concern. The firm of Eyre 
and Spottiswoode became, while he was a partner in it, one of the largest, 

as it was one of the oldest, printing houses in London, distinguished by 
the amount and also the excellence of the work it turned out. Charles 
Eyre and William Strahan became the King's printers in 1770. In 
1787 Andrew Strahan took William Strahan's place. Charles Eyre in 
1795 gave place to George Eyre; and Andrew Spottiswoode, Mr. W. 
Spottiswoode's father, became George Eyre's partner in 183 1. In 184.6 
Mr. Spottiswoode, who had just left Oxford, took his father's place. 
Since then he has been an aftive man of business as well as a distin- 
guished man of science and a man of the world, whose houses in London 
and Sevenoaks were almost constantly filled by distinguished guests both 
English and foreign. To accomplish all this, to make elaborate and 
delicate experiments, contribute a succession of papers to the " Trans- 
aftions" of the Royal Society and the " Philosophical Magazine," to 
mix frequently In general society, to preside over the chief of our scien- 
tific bodies, and manage a large business, was possible only to a man 

who would map out the work of every day and never waste a minute of 
his time. And this was the case with Mr. Spottiswoode. His was 
eminently an organizing brain, gifted with great clearness, complete 
mastery of detail, unfailing punctuality, and power at once to seize the 
essence of any matter brought under his notice. Of his achievements as 
a man of science It Is, perhaps, too soon to speak. Personally he was 
most kind and generous, eminently tolerant of differences of opinion, and 
courteous to all with whom he came In contaft. The Royal Society 
will find It hard to replace such a president; and while speaking of this 
we may point out that the daily papers are mistaken In saying he was 
eleded in 1879. He succeeded Sir Joseph Hooker in November, 1878, 
and had therefore held the post for over four years and a-half. He is 
the first president who has died In office since Sir Joseph Banks. As a 
business man he possessed a wonderful capacity for mastering the most 
complicated details. This aptitude enabled him not only to manage 
successfully his own mercantile affairs, but also to fill with conspicuous 
ability the Secretaryship of the Royal Institution and other public offices. 

[ 26 ] 

Old Face Boiirs^cois. 

[ 27 ] 

Old Face Brevier. 

R. WILLIAM CHAMBERS, born in 1800, and died May, 
1883. The story of his remarkable career has been so 
charmingly told by himself, that it seems superfluous to 
enlarge upon it here, more especially as we dealt with it in 
some measure when recording the death of his brothers in 
1 871. He was at fourteen years of age apprenticed to a 
bookseller in Edinburgh, and in 1 8 19, when he had served 
his time, he had the courage to set up in business for himself, commencing, in 
the humblest possible fashion, with a stall in Leith Walk. In 1821 he made his 
first serious effort as a publisher by issuing a small fortnightly periodical, called the 
" Kaleidoscope," he printing it and his brother editing it. The venture was not 
exadlly a success — first attempts seldom are — -still it was well enough received to 
encourage the brothers to persevere. By 1832 William Chambers and his brother 
had established themselves in a good position as booksellers, and had both, Robert 

more especially, acquired a considerable reputation as authors. The cheap papers 
which were then beginning to appear came into William Chambers's hands to sell, 
and his keen eye detedled that while they met an evident want they were lacking 
in definite purpose and literary ability, and their business management was bad. 
Hence occurred to him the idea of a weekly periodical in which these defefts 
should be avoided, and on Saturday, February 4th, 1832, appeared the first 
number of " Chambers's Edinburgh Journal." The success of the journal was 
immediate ; fifty thousand copies were speedily sold in Scotland, and when an 
agent was found for the paper in London the sale rose to eighty thousand. 
Unlike the " Penny Magazine," it proved a permanent success, and this was, no 
doubt, mainly due to the business capacity of William Chambers and his skill as 
an editor. The brothers now became partners ; their business grew to be a great 
concern, and one successful venture after another added to the credit of their 
house. Not content with taking his share in the publishing business, William 
Chambers frequently came forward as an author, and among his writings may be 
mentioned "Tour in Holland and the Rhine Countries," 1839; "Things as 

they are in America," an account of a tour in the United States made in 1853 ; 
"The Youth's Companion," i860; " Something of Italy," 1862; "History of 
Peeblesshire," 1864; "Wintering in Mentone," 1870; "France, its History 
and Revolutions," 1871 ; and his ckef-d^cewvre, "Memoir of Robert Chambers," 
1872. Of this book an abridged edition appeared a few years ago. In 1865 he 
was elefted Lord Provost of Edinburgh, an honour which the storm excited by 
the "Vestiges" prevented his brother from attaining, and his tenure of office 
was signalized by a great effort to " Haussmannize " the old town of Edinburgh. 
Much that was pifturesque was swept away, but the sanitary effedl was undeni- 
ably good, and the death rate of the city was largely reduced. Re-ele£led to the 
Provostship, he retired, amid general regret, as soon as he saw that the success of 
his scheme was assured. In many other ways he showed his desire to improve 
the condition of his fellow citizens, and to that end he gave liberally of his large 
fortune for public purposes. His was a singularly prosperous and blameless life. 
Almost the only sorrow that befell him till his brothers died was the loss of his 
three children in infancy. Shrewdness, energy, and integrity brought to him, as 
to so many of his countrymen, speedy and ample reward. 

AMPSON LOW, the " Father of the Trade," the only English publisher, we 
believe, who in 1886 could boast that he belonged to the last century. His 
father, also named Sampson Low, was a bookseller in Berwick Street, Soho, 
then a well-to-do quarter, and died in the year 1800, three years after his son 
was bom. Young Low served a short apprenticeship to Mr. Lionel Booth, 
who kept the well-known library ; and, after a few years spent in the house 
of Messrs. Longman and Co., he began business in 1819 in Lamb's Conduit Street as a librarian 
and publisher. In those days Lamb's Conduit Street was in the centre of a distridV inhabited by 
wealthy people, and for several years Mr. Low's reading-room was the resort of many literary men, 
lawyers, and politicians. He did not publish much, but what he did produce was done with excellent 
taste. A specimen of his work may be found in " The Iris : a Literary and Religious Offering," edited 
by the Rev. Thomas Dale, afterwards Vicar of St. Pancras, and issued in iSjo. The little volume 
contains eleven steel engravings, after the old masters, by the best engravers of the day, and seems to 
have been intended as an annual ; but the experiment probably was too costly to prove remunerative, 
and it does not appear to have been repeated. Sampson Low, always an aftive and popular member 
of the trade, was secretary to the Association for the prote£Vion of retail booksellers against undersellers. 

and to him used to come every bookseller in London to obtain a proteftion ticket for his collefting 
book ; for without the exhibition of this ticket no coUedor could obtain the books of any publisher be- 
longing to the Association. The Association came suddenly to an end in l85Z (see "Athenjeum," 
Nos. 1282 and 1283). In 1837 Sampson Low, in connexion with a committee of fourteen 
of the leading publishers, started the " Publishers' Circular," by which his name will be best 
remembered i[i the annals of bookselling. On the issue of the thousandth number of the 
"Publishers' Circular," May i6th, 1879, its founder gave a short account of its origin and his- 
tory, from which we may quote the following : " Its fortnightly lists have formed the basis of separate 
annual catalogues which give in one alphabet, and also in special index form, the literary produft of 
each year, whilst these again have furnished the material for the British and English Catalogues, in 
five volumes — now comprised in four volumes, viz., two volumes of alphabet and two volumes of in- 
dex — which furnish titles and dates of publication of all the works recorded, both in alphabetical order 
and index of subjefts. This "Circular" and these Catalogues have been issued under the superinten- 
dence and anxious care of the one same editor, who, however conscious he may be of the many im- 
perfeflions which may be regarded as almost inseparable from such produfVions, yet naturally looks 
back with no small degree of satisftflion and pleasure on the work which in God's providence he 
has been permitted for so long a period to carry on." It is not too much to say that every title 
in these volumes passed under hi? ov/n supervision, and a very large proportion of them were 
written out by himself at odd times, and were not allowed to interfere with his regular business. 
About the year 1844 Mr. Low became acquainted with the late Fletcher Harper, of New York, an 

acquaintance which resulted in his becoming the literary agent of the Harpers, and the connexion 
lasted for over forty years. This connexion was the foundation of the large dealings with America 
which gave a distinfl cachet to his firm, and more than anything else contributed to lay the foundations 
of its prosperity. In 1848, owing to the increase of his business with the States, he opened in con- 
junftion with his son, a third Sampson, an office in Fleet Street, and in 1852 they removed to 47, 
Ludgate Hill, where, in 1856, Mr. E. Marston joined them as partner, and where their business 
assumed the large proportions which have ever since distinguished it. Three years later the Chatham 
and Dover Railway Company drove them to a more roomy house in the same thoroughfare, and when 
it in its turn was demolished they went back to Fleet Street, and settled in Crown Buildings in 1867. 
In 1871 Mr. Low lost his elder son, Sampson, an extremely clever man, who had done much to raise 
the firm, and ten years later his second son, William, and in the same year (1881) he had the crown- 
ing grief of losing his wife, within a month of the anticipated celebration of their " diamond wedding. " 
Mr. Sampson Low was a man of extraordinary zeal and untiring energy, and did not by any means 
confine his activity to his business. He was mainly instrumental, in connexion with his elder son, 
in establishing the Royal Society for the proteftion of Life from Fire- -a society which flourished and 
did good service for many years in the saving of life till it was taken over by the Board of Works and 
incorporated with the London Fire Brigade. Oftentimes during his connexion with that Society, after 
labourious days, Mr. Low used to spend a great part of the night in attending fires, or in rushing 
round to see that the escape men were wide awake and on the alert. Mr. Low retired from business 
in 1875, disposing of his interest in it to the present firm, which now comprises Mr. E. Mars- 
ton, Mr. S. W. Searle, Mr. W. J. Rivington, and Mr. R. B. Marston. He retained his energies 
till almost at the last, taking part in a fishing expedition to Dovedalc at the age of eighty-seven, an 
expedition which found its historian in a younger publisher. 

[ 28 ] 

Old Face Noiipar-eil. 

[ 29 ] 

Old French Roman Capitals. 














[ so ] 

0/d Style Roman Capitals. 

[ 31 ] 

Modern Roman Capitals. 












[ 32 ] 

Old Face Roman Capitals. 

[ 33 ] 

0/cl Style Italic. 








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[ 34 ] 

Modern Italic. 

[ 35 ] 

Old Face Italic. 



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abcdefghtjklmnopqrJstuvwxy2,ace5ipJhJkfii^ abcdefghijkt 





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[ 36 ] 

Bold Face {Clarendon) Types. 

[ :.i ] 

Dutch Black- Letter Types. 











[ 38 ] 

Old English Black-Letter Types. 


Note. — Machine papers can be made to any size, but 
the moulds for handmade papers only exist in certain 
dimensions. The thickness of paper is governed by 
weight — so many pounds to the ream. The paper on 
which this leaf is printed is 32 lb. Demy — the equivalent 
in Double Foolscap and Double Crown would be 36 and 
48 lbs. respectively (see pages 14, 36, and 37 of the text). 

Machine made. 


White shade a 

Cream „ b 

Toned „ c 

Antique laid d 

Plate paper e 

Super calendered f 

Enamel surface g 


Dutch, Van Gelder h 

French i 

English, Dickinson j 

„ Arnold k 

Whatman l 

Japanese vellum m 

Most of these papers can be obtained from stock in 
several sizes. If they have to be made, colour and weight 
can be altered in most cases, and the length of time for 
making machine papers is usually one to two weeks — 
handmade papers take from four to six weeks. 












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